A flower called peperomia - Peperomia (dwarf pepper) - most often a small herb with thick leaves of various sizes and shapes, colors and structures. It belongs to the family of Piperaceae (Pepper). Homeland is considered to be Tropical America and Asia. The name translated from Greek means: “peperi” - “pepper” and “omos” - “identical”. In nature, it can grow on bushes and bark of trees, rotting parts of plants, in forests on soils rich in peat, and less often on rocky terrain. In the people there is such a name as “perceptive” or “plant with rat tail”.
It can grow as a shrub, shrub, and sometimes as an ampelous culture. Due to this, it is widely used at exhibitions and in floristic compositions. The flower is rich in abundance of forms and shades, which makes it a welcome guest not only in houses, but also in botanical gardens. Due to the wide specific palette, it often serves as the basis for flower arrangements, and variegated varieties often play the role of bright additions and color accents.
Peperomiya at the time of flowering
At the time of flowering on the peperomia, numerous inflorescences form in the form of spikelets, something outwardly similar to the color of the plantain, and inconspicuous small flowers. Hence the name "plant with a rat tail." The inflorescence reaches a length of 6-7 cm and is a thin, slightly twisted or bent process. Usually blooms in spring or summer. The appearance of the flowers varies depending on the type and variety. Some blooming species have fragrant inflorescences. At the end of the flowering period, fruits are formed, which are presented in the form of small, dry berries, which are very easily separated from the cob.
A photo of a room peperomia blooming is suggested below for your reference - estimate the unusualness of the green “pet”:
Beautiful culture for collectors, especially for those who are limited in space for the location of plants. In addition, it is quite unpretentious, which makes it easy to grow it. Household flowers of peperomia reach a height of 50-55 cm, dwarf varieties - up to 15-20 cm. Differs plant a great diversity of species. Leathery shiny leaves can be a different shade of green and have all sorts of forms - from small and thin to fleshy and wide with a twisted end. Dense fleshy stems of tall plants, as they grow, can bend under their own weight.
An interesting feature of this flower is that with light friction on the sheet plate with warm hands you can feel a delicate subtle aroma, something like the smell of Bulgarian pepper.
Ensure the rich variety of indoor perperomy flower by looking at the photo below:
The images show several examples of this unusual plant.
Species and varieties of perperomy: photos, names and description of indoor plants
According to the latest information, there are more than 1160 species of this plant. Conventionally, they can be divided into three types of peperomia flower:
Some types of peperomia flower can be grown as ampelous plants in shallow pots. Such varieties are characterized by the presence of falling down stems up to 1,2-1,5 m in length. If necessary, they can be cut off in the spring, if they do not look too thick. This provokes the formation of new lateral shoots.
To ampelnye species include:
Below is a description of some of them. Types of ampelous peperomia and the names of the varieties cultivated from them, with the corresponding photos attached, are presented below:
Peperomia scandens variegata (climbing) - a beautiful view of the flower, which is characterized by the presence of a compact root system and the accumulation of water in the leaves and stems. The round-shaped sheet plate of beige color as it grows stretches to 5-6 cm and forms a pointed end, thus acquiring a green color.
Peperomia serpens (creeping) It has an oval-shaped sheet plate with a pronounced pointed end. Color dark green with cream edging on the end.
Peperomia pereskiafolia (perkemia pepermia) another kind of dwarf pepper with a small dark foliage and pronounced veins. Sheet plates are assembled in sockets for 4-5 pieces.
Type of glabella peperomia (Peperomia glabella) - Peperomia golovataya. The shoots grow up first and hang only when they become too heavy.
Peperomia rotundifolia (round-leaved) - a type of houseplant called peperomy, which has small round sheets of light green color with a pleasant to the touch delicate structure.
Peperomia angulata (peperomia beetle) has a dark green color growing in pairs of leaves with light stripes.
Peperomia rotundifolia (rotundifolia perperomy) has creeping stems up to 30 cm long. Rounded flat leaves of a dark shade of green reach 2 cm in diameter.
Hanging shoots variegated varieties "Variegata»Serpentine peperomia (Peperomia serpens) - these are beautiful ampelous plants.
The photos are presented below for detailed information. The most famous bush species are the following:
- Multiple acid.
Shrunken peperomia (Peperomia caperata) - A plant with very wrinkled leaves.
Watermelon peperomia (Peperomia watermelon) и silver tilt (Peperomia argyreia) evolve like peperomia caperata rosette. Silvery is perhaps the most famous species due to its silver-striped leaves.
Velvety (Peperomia velutina) grows like a bush and has brown-brown branches and trunk. The height reaches 20-50 cm.
Peperomiya multi-sieve (Peperomia polybotrya) differs in powerful highly branching shoots up to 40 height. See. The leaf plate is round and wide.
Gray (Peperomia incana) It has an unusual heart-shaped sheet plate. It has a uniform dark green color and velvet surface.
Peperomiya Angulata (Peperomia angulata hanging) - a compact bush up to 15-17 height see. Represents a moisture-loving plant of dark green color.
Peperomiya Lilian (Peperomia lilian) - low-growing shrub with dark green heart-shaped leaves. The plant is originally from Mexico.
Marble - This type of pepper is a small, grassy, shrub. The peculiarity lies in the color of the leaf plate - brown-maroon veins are pronounced on a green background.
A beautiful and popular varieties of peperomia bush species include a hybridTricolor, Which is distinguished by leaves with white border.
Very large variety "Emerald Ripple ».
Yellow-green leaves "Greengold", "USA"And dwarf varieties"Minima».
See photos of the bush peperomia varieties proposed below:
After examining them, any plant grower will find an option for the soul. To upright plant species include:
- Magnolia list
Below are photos of erect peperomia with official names and brief characteristics:
Peperomiya tupolistnaya (Peperomia obtusifolia) characterized by weakly succulent oval-shaped leaves with a beveled edge.
Peperomiya magnolistnaya (Peperomia magnoliaefolia) has shiny leaves up to 5-5,5 cm, which grow alternately on succulent brownish stems.
Peperomiya klyuzelistnaya (Peperomia clusiifolia) differs fleshy foliage oval shape with a pointed end.
Peperomiya Mutovchataya (Peperomia verticillata) possesses small leaves up to 2 cm in length, assembled in whorls of 5-6 pieces. The color is light green with a white downy layer on the surface of the sheet plate.
Very unusual varieties of peperomia flower with photos and titles are offered below. Each of them has its own characteristics, adding to the plant a special decoration and originality.
Peperomiya dololobitaya (P. dolabriformis) characterized by very succulent shoots, which grow as they grow.
Columella or columnar (P. columella) possesses erect shoots covered with scales. Grows up to 20 cm tall. The sheet plate and the trunk are painted in a dark green or emerald hue.
Peperomiya Ferreira (P. ferreyrae) It is famous for the unusual shape of oblong leaves of light green color folded in half, which are assembled into star-shaped sockets.
Peperomia Graveolens (P. graveolens) different bright colors of foliage. On top of the plate is dark green, and the lower part - a bright burgundy color.
Favorable conditions for growing peperomia
By its nature, this is an unpretentious plant that does not require special environmental conditions. For the organization of proper care for the peperia flower, it is enough to pay attention to a number of factors:
- Air humidity.
- Top dressing.
Species and varieties with green leaves love the light, but not the sun, in the summer can be placed in partial shade. Variegated varieties need as much diffused light as possible. Window sills are best suited from the western and eastern sides. In winter, these plants will not be up against a few hours of sunshine or exposure to fluorescent light. For artificial lighting, it is sufficient to position the device at a distance of 50-70 cm from the pot with the plant and leave for 2-3 hours.
Does not tolerate the flower drafts, so fresh air on the balcony or on the loggia will create unfavorable conditions for full growth. Take care of warming the window frame with special foam tabs, adhesive tape or putty during cold periods of the year.
Care for the peperomia flower at home will also consist in maintaining the optimum air temperature, which should be as warm as possible, not lower than 13 ° C. The most suitable temperature ranges from 20 to 22 ° C in spring and summer, from 18 to 20 ° C in autumn and winter.
And the temperature of the earth coma should not be below the mark 17 ° С. In winter, a warm ground is needed to maintain the viability of the thermophilic root system.
Humidity is preferably at least 50%, primarily in the period of growth from March to October, otherwise leaves fall at high temperatures. Spraying is not a necessary care item, but it will not be superfluous during hot periods. But as for the gray-haired and round-leaved species of the plant, such a procedure is undesirable, since it may entail the loss of color and luster of the leaf plate.
For the care of indoor flowers with peperomia, a standard flower soil mixture for ornamental deciduous plants is suitable as a primer. The main requirement for the soil is its loose structure. The substrate should pass well through itself both air and moisture.
In terms of watering flower unpretentious. Enough to keep the substrate slightly moist. With an excess of moisture leaves fall and often the plant dies. It is best to use soft distilled water. A warm shower will also not be superfluous, but on condition that the plant does not bloom. Such procedures are especially favorable in hot summer periods.
Fertilizing is preferred once every 3 week, in winter - once every 6 week with the help of mineral complex fertilizers, which can be purchased from specialized flower shops.
Pruning peperomii and how to pinch shoots
Pruning for peperomia is not a necessary, but desirable procedure for increasing its decorative effect. Ampel varieties after cutting young sprouts grow even more, which makes the flower "fluffy." The pinching method can contribute to the cultivation of a more branched and high home plant. As a rule, erect shoots are pruned when they reach 20-25 height. See Higher shoots break under the weight of their own weight. In place of the cut grows from 2 to 4 new shoots. Bush plant species do not require pruning.
How to pinch the shoots of peperomia, described in detail in the video below:
See it for detailed study and confidence in the correctness of their actions.
Peperomia transplant: how to transplant a plant
Transplantation of young peperomia before the age of 3 is required every year. For an adult plant, 1 transplant is tolerated over 2 years. This is done in spring - in April. The pot is selected based on the size of the root system. Wide and shallow containers are best suited, but with each transplant their diameter should be larger by 1,5-2 cm.
The transplant process consists of several stages. The first is the preparation of the substrate consisting of leaf soil, humus, sand and peat in the ratio 2: 1,5: 1: 1. The second step is to provide a drainage layer at the bottom of the pot for water and air outflow. Due to this, excess liquid in the earthen coma will not accumulate. For drainage, large claydite or crushed brick is used; it is laid on the bottom of the pot with a layer up to 2.
The fourth step is the direct planting of the plant in the recess and falling asleep by a layer of soil, which ultimately must reach the side of the pot. It remains the last and fifth action - watering with warm water.
It is important to remember that after transplantation fertilizing is not required. During the entire period up to spring, the new substrate is still full of useful trace elements and substances, and the plant adapts to the new living condition. Top dressing in this case can harm the flower.
How to transplant young perperomy correctly is described in detail in the video file offered below:
Take a look before starting the planting process.
Reproduction scheme of perperomy cuttings and leaves
Peperomia can be reproduced at home by:
- Apical cuttings.
- Leaf cuttings.
- Division of the root system.
In species growing with rosettes, only the second breeding variant is allowed, since there are basal leaves.
Reproduction of the flower of perperium cuttings produce in spring or summer. To do this, use a sharp knife or scissors to carefully cut off the shoot with one or several buds. Then the process is planted in a fertile substrate, covered with polyethylene or a cut off plastic bottle (like a mini-greenhouse). An escape is put in a warm place for its rooting until its root system expands to 3-4 cm in diameter. Then it is enough to transplant the grown plant into a slightly larger pot for its further growth and development.
Propagation of the flower by the peperomia leaf happens approximately according to such scheme. First, cut a healthy and elastic sheet and put it in purified settled water for rooting. During the entire period, until the root processes of up to 4 cm are formed, the water needs to be updated daily. Then it is enough to plant a young rooted plant in a nutrient substrate for further growth.
How to propagate peperomia with seeds and how to root a flower by dividing
Seeds propagate the plant only in early spring. Planting material is pre-soaked in warm water for 50-60 minutes for swelling. In March, the finished seeds are planted in a nutrient substrate consisting of peat soil and sand. After pouring the soil mixture into the pot, the germinating material is laid out in a thin layer and covered with a layer of 1-thick soil. Then it is slightly moistened with warm water. Cover the pot with a thick polyethylene or plastic bottle. In this greenhouse, the seeds are 1,5-2 a month before fully rooting and germinating to a height of 5-8, see. Prepared plants can be planted in pots one by one or in small groups.
There is nothing difficult in how to propagate the flower of perperomy with the help of rhizome division. To do this, take a healthy adult plant with a sufficiently developed root system. With a sharp knife or scissors cut off part of the plant, along with a piece of rhizome. Then it suffices to land the cut off sprout into the nutrient soil.
How to root a peperomia plant in various ways is described in detail in the attached video file:
See it for a detailed study of this issue.
Possible diseases and pests of perperomy
Cases of the manifestation of diseases and pests in peperomia due to improper care are not excluded.
Possible diseases of the home plant:
The virus dwarfism.
List of possible pests:
Of all the diseases of the flower of peperomia, root rot is the most common, which is accompanied by suppuration of the root collar. The rot of the stems and leaves spreads at too low temperatures and an excess of moisture. For treatment, it is necessary to treat the plant with a fungicide ("Topaz", etc.), transplant into fresh, dry soil, removing all rotten parts of the roots with sharp scissors, and reduce watering to a minimum.
Dwarf virus - an incurable disease, these flowers are not able to grow and develop, because of what occurs the curvature of the leaf plates and violation of the life cycle, which manifests itself during flowering. Most often, plants affected by this virus are purchased from unscrupulous breeders. Therefore it is worth buying copies in specialized stores.
Below are photos of infected peperomia and the names of the diseases that hit them:
They also show an approximate picture of the development of the disease with a clear example of its foci.
Of all the pests of the flower of perperomy, the spider mite is the most common. Its presence is easy to notice, because the plant forms small foci covered with a thin white cobweb. The most likely cause of this pest is excessively dry air.
To eliminate such a problem, it is necessary to wash the plant with soapy water and wash it off under a warm shower, then moisten the air in the room.
In the presence of a pest, it is possible to see the appearance of brown growths or, as they are also called, plaques. Under an educated crust, the insect lays eggs, in which, as they develop, young parasites grow. They spread throughout the plant, sticking to succulent stems, killing a flower.
To combat the pest, you must wash the plant with a solution of soap or alcohol. In case of extensive lesions, the surface of the flower should be treated with “Actellic” or “Phosbecid” preparations.
Why do brown spots appear on peperomia and leaves turn yellow?
Often the flower can be exposed to the harmful effects of insect thrips. With high air temperature and low humidity, these pests can start. A sign is the appearance of brown spots on the leaves of the peperomia. To solve the problem, it is necessary to transplant the flower into fresh soil and process it with a fungicide ("Fitoderm", "Aktellik", etc.). At the initial stage of infection, you can simply replace the top layer of soil, and not completely transplant the plant.
The torture buck gives its presence due to the formation of wax-like lumps of white color on the surface of the leaf plate and stem. With delayed treatment, the leaves of the plant curl and fall.
To get rid of insects, it is enough to remove them manually with a cotton pad or cloth, wash the leaf plates and the stem with soap and warm water.
Below are photos of the pest permium species with an approximate appearance of lesions:
Common problems with dwarf pepper growing
Bulging spots on the leaves of the perperomy flower indicate excessive systematic over-wetting of the soil or disturbed drainage system. In the first stages, watery formations of small size appear, which eventually turn brown and dry. If you ignore this problem, the plant will rot and die. To avoid such situations, choose a light loose soil and be sure to take care of the drainage layer at the bottom of the pot. To the best of abundant and regular watering in combination with properly selected conditions of maintenance will ensure a long life for the green "pet."
If the peperomia gradually turn yellow leaves, and then become covered with brown-brown crusts, then this is the result of exposure to direct sunlight for a long time. That is, in fact it is a sunburn, and the condition of the flower will improve the presence in the penumbra, moisture and the elimination of the burnt leaves.
If pepermia gradually turns yellow after fertilizing with mineral fertilizers, then, most likely, this is an overabundance of the introduced substances. Perhaps the single dose was simply incorrectly calculated, and henceforth it is necessary to carefully study the instructions for use. In a more deplorable situation, the formation of rusty dry spots and spots.
The answer to a common question as to why the leaves turn yellow in peperomia may be a banal overcooling of a plant. With a long stay at temperatures below 13-14 ° C, the thermophilic plant originally from the tropics simply dies. If the process of yellowing foliage extends only to the lower leaves, then this is a normal natural phenomenon. The old and burdening parts of the flower die off, to be replaced by young ones.
Brown spots on the leaves of the peperomia flower, concentrated on the ends, may indicate a sharp overcooling of the plant or exposure to drafts, which is unacceptable in the care of tropical dwarf pepper and is detrimental to its health.
Try to change the location of the pot and raise the room temperature (this should be done gradually).
Why do young leaves turn black and fall off?
If young leaves turn black at peperomia, this may be evidence of excessive watering and moistening of the air. The soil does not dry out, thus creating a favorable environment for the development of fungal spores. In this situation, the plant is characterized by lethargy, softness of leaves and the presence of white bloom on the root processes.
If the plant has become sluggish and dry in the stem part, then an insufficient amount of nutrients in the composition of the substrate or a lack of space in the flower pot for an advanced root system may be the cause. To solve the problem, it is enough to transplant it into a large container with a fresh nutrient substrate.
Spider mite can be the reason for which leaves gradually fall off in peperomia. If help is delayed, the flower may die.
For clarity, all the unfavorable situations for the cultivation of the indoor plant peperomia are shown in detail in the photo below:
At observance of all instructions and norms on the maintenance of this indoor flower similar problems will not disturb. But remember that the purchase will not interfere with a thorough inspection of the specimen to ensure that it is healthy.