Passionflower (Lat. Passiflora) - genus of amazing plants of the family Passion flowers. They are often found in Madagascar and in Australian forests, although their homeland is the tropical regions of America. The name of this exot comes from the Latin words: “passio”, which means “suffering, anguish”, and “flos”, which translates as “flower”. Passionflower was called Passionflower by the first missionaries in South America, to whom the shape of the flower resembled the crown of thorns of Christ, and the five petals, the sepals and stamens - the number of his wounds.
What does houseplant passionflower look like (passionflower)
Each type of family Passifloraceae (Passiflorovye) in nature has its own characteristics: it can be a shrub, a single or perennial herb with a strong stem. Flowers reach 10 cm in diameter, for them a characteristic bright color and a star shape. Between the stamens and the perianth are rows of bright threads that form the crown. The flowering of passionflower lasts from the beginning of July to October. At the same time, its individual varieties (for example, incarnate and passionflower blue) exude a delicate fragrance that quickly disappears.
The leaves of passionflower dark green, large enough, are whole or lobed. On them or on the scapes there are peculiar “glands” that are inconspicuous to the human eye.
They secrete a special liquid that attracts ants to them. These insects are necessary for passionflower to protect against the main pests in the wild - the caterpillars of heliconies. The shape of the glands and their location can vary: some species have outgrowths that are visually similar to the eggs of butterflies. This makes the plant unattractive to insect pests, deceptively demonstrating that it is already occupied by other heliconia.
Species and plant varieties of passionflower: photos and descriptions of popular species
The genus Passionflower has many species, but it is difficult to name the exact number: In the tropics of Amazonia, you can find specimens not known to science. Such types of passiflora are widespread, such as:
- The most gentle.
Edible passionflower actively grown in New Zealand, Australia, Israel and Sri Lanka. The plant has several names: cavalry star, grenadilla, passion fruit and pechenfruit. This kind of passionflower is evergreen, the diameter of the flower does not exceed 3, see. Rounded or slightly oblong, the fruit weighs from 40 to 50 g. It matures through 1-2 a month after pollination, the color of ripe passion fruit can vary from yellow to dark purple. The fruit is valued for fragrant, tasty and healthy flesh, which is eaten raw or made from her drinks and sweets.
Of the more than 400 species of passionflower as a houseplant, blue passionflower is the most famous - a strong and enduring plant. Its wild specimens twist well and can reach 11 m in height. At home, it grows much slower. The color of exotic flowers is about 10 cm, they can be not only blue, but also pink, red. The fruit of this variety of passionflower has a bright orange color, and its length is 5-7 cm.
After reading the description, take a look at the photo of blue passiflora with flowers: the plant looks bright and unusual.
Laurel Passionflower has the original form of leaves that resemble laurel, but much larger in size. They can reach 20 cm in length and have a dark green color. The homeland of this exotic is Brazil, but it is often grown in greenhouse conditions or as a houseplant.
Take a look at the photo of this kind of passionflower with red or purple sepals and petals, a crown of bright threads: the flower is unlikely to leave you indifferent.
Ripening passion fruit do not exceed 8 cm in length, and their skin is very dense. Inside the “golden apple” there are numerous flat seeds, which are covered with translucent juicy pulp.
Grace-like passionflower - Annual plant with greenish-white flowers, wide stems and smooth triangular leaves that have rounded edges. The fruit has a rich red or carrot color, and the flesh inside has a delicate and subtle flavor.
Delicate (banana) passionflower grows in Colombia and selected regions of Venezuela. This species is resistant to cold, it can withstand a temperature drop to -1˚С. Passion fruit begins already after 12 months of active growth.
The attention of tourists is attracted by the way this kind of passiflora looks in the period of heavy flowering: large pink flowers reach 12 cm in diameter. Its fruits are fleshy and very fragrant, they have a high concentration of useful for the body acids.
The type of incarnate (apricot vine) is widely used in medicine: dried stems and leaves are used as a food supplement or basis for medicinal tea. Useful substances in the composition of the plant help with neurosis of varying degrees, insomnia, manifestations of epilepsy. Passiflora creeper length varies from 6 to 10 m, and flower color has a bright purple hue. Light yellow passion fruit is valued for its rich flavor with a slight acidity.
Tetrahedral passionflower - one of the largest species, which grows up to 15 m in length. The flowers of this passionflower are up to 15 cm in diameter, large leaves have a beautiful oval shape and bright green color. The fruits are large, their length exceeds 25 cm, but the flesh is very juicy and fragrant. It is covered with a thick rind with a spongy white layer adjacent from the inside. Seeds of the fruit should not be consumed: they cause drowsiness and can be toxic.
One of the conditions for growing tetrahedral passionflower is enough space and light for it. Therefore, this passionflower is not used as a houseplant. The optimal place for young exotics to grow is the greenhouse.
Three-strip view of passiflora got its name because of the three dark red lines on the outside of the leaves. Their back side has an unusual purple-purple hue. The flowers are small, up to 6 cm in diameter, greenish or white-yellow. The rounded fruit grows no more than 4 cm in length: a gray, light gray color is characteristic of a ripe berry.
Auranthia - one of the few types of passionflower, whose birthplace is Australia. It owes its name to bright color: in Latin, “aurantius” means “orange”. The description of this passiflora differs from other members of the Passion-Flowers family in that its flowers do not fully reveal. They change color from light yellow to orange, and when the flowering period comes to an end, the petals appear reddish.
In the wild, passiflora aurantia grows on the edge of tropical forests or on rocky land: It does not require a large amount of nutrients in the soil. Therefore, at home, passiflora requires a wide layer of drainage and nitrogen-free feeding. Its fruits are small - they can reach 6 cm in diameter, have a round shape and a rich orange color.
In addition to these types of passionflower, rarely grow passionflower:
Their main characteristics (size, color of flower and fruit) are inferior in their qualities to popular varieties.
Also in the role of indoor plants use interspecific hybrids of passionflower: crossing allows to obtain more cool-resistant plants with large and original flowers.
PassionflowerBeautiful» - hybrid of winged and large-fruited species. This is a self-pollinating plant with flowers with a diameter greater than 10 cm, which have a surprisingly delicate aroma. Fruits are orange-yellow, they grow from 9 to 15 in length. The flowering of passionflower does not last long, but several buds appear on the plant at once.
PassionflowerPurple pendulum». Its creators have achieved a unique sky-blue shade of flowers of an exotic plant. But this passionflower is very sun-loving: with an insufficient amount of diffused lighting, it will not please its owner with flowering.
Often grown varieties:
Having decided to decorate the room with one of these plants, they carefully study descriptions of passionflower, because Violacea is characterized by rapid growth: over the summer, vines can grow by 2-4 m.
At the same time the shoots are very flexible, they can be easily distributed over the support. To make the plant feel comfortable, you should take care of free space for future shoots. Plants bloom profusely and very beautifully, the color of buds varies from blue-violet to pinkish-white.
Take a look at the video where passionflower grows in its natural environment:
You will certainly want to grow this beauty on your own windowsill.
Growing passionfruit from seed: how to grow seedlings at home
Passionflower is often grown at home: this is due to the fact that passionflower blooms continuously from early spring to early autumn, and individual species under room conditions can produce bright fruits with fragrant flesh.
In addition, adult passionflower is not as difficult to care for as other exotics come from tropical forests. Before you decide passiflora at home grow from seed, you need to be patient.
In order to “seed pits” appear sprouts, it is worth taking care of good planting material. Collecting seeds from the fruits of their own adult plants, take into account their peculiarity: the germination rate of freshly harvested seeds is about 30%, and last year's - only 2-3%.
They are sown in late February or in the first month of spring. To begin with, seeds should be scarified: gently damage the hard shell. This can be done with any hard object, but it is better to use a piece of hard peel. In order to grow home-grown passiflora from seeds to be effective and give the expected result, planting material is soaked for two days in water with a temperature of + 25˚С.
It is better not to use a liquid from the tap, because in the general water supply it can be disinfected. Suitable distilled water of the desired temperature, in which the seeds are placed.
After the end of the soaking time, those seeds that remain to float on the surface emit: they will not sprout. The swollen seeds are laid out on the ground surface, slightly pressing them. The optimal substrate is a floral soil mixture, which should be constantly wet. To achieve this, the sowing tank is covered with a transparent film or glass. The air temperature for the seeds should be from + 21 to + 25 ˚С.
For growing seedlings of seedlings from seeds at home requires good lighting: It should be bright, but scattered. Shoots may appear in the time range from one month to one year. When the first sprouts become visible, the glass or film is carefully removed. Loose plants need an eleven hour light day, the absence of which is compensated by additional illumination.
After the first young leaves appear on the sprouts, the saplings carefully dive, ensuring that the roots remain on the roots. Exotic seedlings should not be planted too deep into the ground: the roots should be near the surface.
There is no quick way to grow beautiful passiflora from seeds - it is a long and laborious process. You need to be prepared for the fact that such a sapling will bloom no sooner than in 7-8 years.
How else can propagate passiflora: breeding options cuttings
There is a known method for propagating room passiflora, cutting, which requires healthy spring shoots of an adult plant. Each of them must have 4-5 leaves and a growing point. A pair of leaves, which is located below, must be removed, and the cut of the shoot must be processed with a root-forming agent.
Further options are possible: cutting rooted in the substrate or containers with water.
If for breeding passiflora prepared cuttings there is a suitable soil (black soil and sod land), choose a special container. Ideal clay pot with small holes at the bottom. A drainage layer is placed on its bottom, which is covered with substrate. Pencil or any stick of the same thickness in the ground make holes that reach the drainage. They are placed cuttings, ensuring that the leaves were flush with the ground.
This method of grafting home passionflower requires little effort: the substrate is constantly moistened, and over the future seedlings the plants create a mini-greenhouse. Need support, which is designed as a small arch. It should be slightly higher than the upper leaves of the stalk. The design is tightly covered with a plastic transparent bag, which is removed daily for 5-7 minutes.
Airing is necessary for cuttings, but the temperature inside the greenhouse should not fall below + 22˚С. All this time, the soil is moistened, preventing stagnant fluid. After 20 days, polyethylene can be removed, and when the seedlings are stronger, transplant them into floral soil for the passion flower.
The main thing is to remember that such reproduction of exotic passiflora occurs only in spring with lignified apical cuttings at soil temperature + 22 ° С.
The cuttings will also begin to develop the root system, if you mix them in a jar of water and a piece of charcoal. The fluid does not change a month and a half until the first roots appear.
Air temperature requirements are similar: it can vary from + 20 to + 22˚С. When the first roots appear on the cuttings, they can be planted in a substrate that is suitable for passionflower. This is an easy way to grow passiflora seedlings at home. When the cuttings are in the water, it is easy to control the process of root growth. But while planting future seedlings in the ground you need to be careful, because they are very fragile.
The first 2-3 weeks of seedlings should be protected from the slightest change in temperature and ensure that the earth was constantly wet.
How to properly care for home passiflora
To passionflower pleased with beautiful flowering and fruit, you need to know how to properly care for home passionflower. Her homeland is tropical forests, so you need to try to recreate the necessary conditions for it.
As a houseplant often grow blue passionflower (passionflower) - Passiflora caerulea. Indoors, it does not grow as fast as in nature, but pleases its owners with beautiful flowering. Because of him passionflower is valued by lovers of exotic plants, but such flowers "live" no more than a day. Therefore, regardless of the number of buds formed on passiflora, they are not removed.
To grow passionfruit from seedlings at home, you need to choose the right soil mixture. It should consist of turf land, peat and sand. You can buy a mix for begonias, which is also suitable for the young root system of passionflower.
The bottom of the pot fall asleep drainage layer: If there is no ready-made drainage, you can create it yourself. To do this, mix small pieces of foam with perlite. Also suitable drainage of equal proportions of expanded clay, pebbles and rubble. This layer at the bottom of the pot should be at least 3 cm.
The ideal place for a passiflora flower in familiar home conditions is on the window sill, which faces south. The plant does not tolerate stagnant air, so in the summer you can take it out to the garden or leave it on the balcony. For passionflower this is the perfect location: it requires a lot of air and light all year round. But passiflora is harmed by drafts and sudden changes in temperature. An exotic plant does not like extreme heat, so it is undesirable to place it in a room with a temperature above + 29˚С.
Caring for an amazing passiflora in unsuitable home conditions is not limited to maintaining the correct temperature and light control. For the stems of passionflower need a reliable support, on which they will be able to trail. Shoots of several meters in length are best kept on the trellis. They should be sent in time in the right direction of growth, because the stems quickly become woody.
Another nuance to which attention should be paid is watering: in summer it is plentiful, in winter limited. Watering in the winter should be rare, little by little, so as not only to dry earthen room. In the summer heat, the humidity of the air around the plant is increased by spraying: in dry weather and high temperatures, it is necessary daily.
Proper planting and the necessary care for passiflora at home complements top dressing: from March to August, it should be fed weekly. You can make not only organic fertilizers, but also mineral supplements. It should be noted that the soil should be wet. Supplements should not be in direct contact with the roots of the plant. It is important not to overdo it, because passionflower is very sensitive to the amount of nutrients in the substrate.
Young plants need a transplant: The passionflower grows, and the root system needs more spacious capacity. This procedure is an integral part of the cultivation and care of exotic passiflora. It allows you to update the soil, remove rotten parts of the root.
She will surely pass over the pruning: All shoots should be cut out before transplanting, except for two or three. Transplant is carried out in the spring. Old plants are transplanted occasionally, young - annually. An adult can be considered a plant in 6-8 years of growth.
It is not necessary to choose the size of the capacity for the plant "in reserve": if the pot is too large, the passionflower may begin to build up the leaf cover and root system, and this year you will have to forget about flowering.
Pruning the care of passiflora: how to prune a flower during cultivation
After the first year of active growth, passion flowers begin to cut. This procedure is carried out every spring: it stimulates the development of plant shoots and their beautiful branching.
Trimming Home Passiflora provides for the removal of dry or rotten branches, pinching shoots. Flower buds are formed only on young shoots, so last year should be cut to third. Also remove the branches that grow at the base of the stem. The cut should be treated with a solution of potassium permanganate, which will prevent rotting or infection.
If you follow the advice and trim the passionflower in such a way as recommended by experienced flower growers, it will please you with a thick crown and abundant flowering. The main thing - do not overdo it with the removal of strong and healthy shoots, because after that the plant can get sick.
Wintering passiflora: why does a plant shed its leaves in winter
Many growers are thinking about the question of how to keep heat-loving passiflora in winter. Passion flower comes from tropical forests, so it is difficult for him to adapt to a short light day. It can grow when temperatures are pronounced seasonally: in summer it loves heat, in winter - around + 10 ° С. But cold winter drafts, dry air from batteries, or too high (from + 16˚С) artificially maintained room temperature can cause irreparable damage to the plant.
Do not worry if your passiflora drops leaves in the winter: in the spring they will grow back. In the cold season, the plant can not be transplanted and often watered (dormant roots may rot). In spite of the fact that the light day becomes shorter, the passionflower is not additionally illuminated. If it is not possible to create an optimal temperature in winter, the plant is simply left alone, choosing the most suitable place for this in an apartment or house. The main condition - the absence of a sharp temperature drop and humidity control.
If the leaves of passiflora quickly turn yellow, this is a signal to the host that the plant does not have enough sunlight, or that the temperature in the room is too low for the exotic. Faded leaves can also signal that excess fertilizer has been applied to the soil. In winter, it is better not to use special fertilizing for passionflower: this can lead to exotic disease.
The plant does not actively absorb substances from the substrate, and they can provoke the process of decay.
During the wintering season of home passionflower, as well as during the summer, it is periodically examined for the first signs of pests, plant infection with spotting, scab, late blight and yellow mosaic.
Why passiflora leaves turn yellow: the main pests and diseases
Under natural conditions, the main pests of most species of Passiflora are heliconium caterpillars. But in temperate continental climatic conditions, the plant suffers from other pests and diseases: mealybugs, spider mites and thrips cause the death of passionflower.
Proper care - not always a guarantee that the plant will not appear uninvited guest.
Mealybug may settle on young shoots, in the axils of the leaves or in buds. The pest feeds on the juice of passionflower and provokes the appearance of mold. Its multiplication is promoted by a large amount of nitrogen-based fertilizers and a favorable ambient temperature of about + 26˚С.
Means with cypermetry, among which - “Arrivo”, “Intavir”, will help to destroy the mealybug.
Spiderweed cellular juice is also necessary for vital activity.. The leaves of the houseplant with this pest begin to turn yellow for no apparent reason, and then dry out. The presence of a tick can be determined by the yellow dots on the leaves: despite its name, the pest secretes very little of the secret that forms the filaments. The web can be seen only when a large number of spider mites accumulate.
Thrips are small insects of a light yellow, brown or black color. It is not difficult to distinguish them from other insects: these pests quickly move, making jumps to a small height. In a short time, thrips can destroy a home flower: on passiflora, they multiply rapidly, feeding on sap from leaves and floral nectar. Damaged areas of the plant become discolored, acquire a light silver shade. Small brown or brown spots can be seen on the inside of the leaf.
Sometimes the answer to the question of why the leaves of home passionflower grow yellow in the spring-summer season is the appearance of pests that undermine the root system or leaves.
Spider mites and thrips are easy to destroy with special products that can be found in every flower shop. Suitable "Aktara", "Aktellk" or "Fitoverm." Following the instructions on the package, the plant is processed several times. It is necessary to destroy not only pests, but also their larvae.
In addition to insects, infectious diseases can spoil the plant. Home passionflower occasionally affects phytophtora, scab, various types of spotting and the yellow mosaic virus. Get rid of them without harm to passionflower does not work: the affected parts of the plant are removed, and the cut is treated with a solution of potassium permanganate. Also use tools to combat plant infectious diseases. With phytophthora 2-3% solution of copper sulfate or Fitosporin-M will help the plant; fungicides are used for scab. If the effect is not, passionflower will have to be destroyed.
It is worth considering that when pests appear, it is necessary to limit the contact between the passionflower and other plants (it is advisable to move it to another room).
Why does an exotic passionflower not bloom at home?
Passionflower is grown because of the large flowers of irregular shape, from the ovary of which fragrant bright fruits can form. There are many reasons why passionflower does not bloom in suitable home conditions. It is worth remembering that a plant that is less than eight years old is unlikely to please with flowering. Behind young passionflower need good care: timely pruning and transplanting, proper feeding. Passionflower needs to gain strength so that the first flowers appear.
In passionflower regularly inspect the leaves and shoots to avoid the appearance of pests. They will weaken the plant, which will not allow buds to form.
Another reason why exotic passionflower does not bloom is not enough light. In the tropics, daylight lasts much longer than in the temperate climate zone. Therefore, you should take care of the correct location of the plant: it should be enough sunlight.