Maranta (Maranta) - perennial herbaceous plant of the family Marantaceae (Marantovaya) with an unusual and bright colors of the leaves. The homeland of exotic is the rainforests of South America, where you can see more than 25 species of this amazing plant. It is named after the medieval botanist and physician Bartholomeo Maranta, and is also known as “praying grass” and “the ten commandments”.
The "exotic prayer plant" was called the exotic arrowhead because of the amazing peculiarity of its leaves: in the evening they rise a little, folding in such a way that you can see only the lower monophonic part of the leaf. The plant received the name “Ten Commandments” due to the same number of white specks on the leaves of certain types of exotic plants.
In room conditions, arrowroot height rarely exceeds 30 cm, although in the tropics the plant can reach 1,5 m in height. The leaves of “praying grass” have an oval shape, bright and unusual coloring, which varies depending on the species and varieties.
Maranth flowers are small, with white, cream or lilac shade. They are often removed even at the stage of bud formation, so that the plant does not waste force on flowering. The fruit of the "prayer grass" is a small, single-seeded box that looks very inconspicuous.
Types and varieties of home arrowroot: photos, names and descriptions of varieties
Each instance of arrowroot is unique: different lighting affects the color of the leaves and their size. But the appearance of exotic is largely determined by species and varietal characteristics.
Among the species of amazing arrowroot most common:
Belozhilchataya maranth often found on the windowsills of experienced florist. Its height is 26-30 cm, the leaves are dark green, have silver-white stripes in the center and on the side conductors.
Among the types of "praying grass" a special place is occupied by the variety called Kerranthova maranth. This rainforest dweller has a very bright color: on the outside of the leaf plate there are large dark green dots in the shape of eyes and feathers, and in the center there is a white line that repeats the shape of the vein. Bottom leaves are painted in a rich red tint with blue overflow.
During flowering at the arrowroot of Kerchoven small inflorescences of small white flowers are formed. But professional growers remove them with flower buds so that the plant does not waste strength. This variety of exotic arrowroot is valued for its amazing leaves: thanks to them it has become a very popular houseplant.
Red foil (or tricolor) view combines three shades: dark green, light green and pale pink. The leaves are shaped like an ellipse up to 6 in width. Their length does not exceed 13 in cm, but this is sufficient for an amazing pattern to be clearly seen. The leaf plates are dark green, but closer to the edge, this shade smoothly flows into a pale lime. In the center there are bright red-pink veins, the central one is marked with light spotty patterns. The plant can also be distinguished by velvety leaves, which have a muffled crimson hue from below.
Look at the photos of these varieties of bright arrowroot with the names to choose the best version of the plant for indoor conditions:
Two color view characterizes the oval-shaped leaves with wavy edges, the length of which varies from 10 to 15; see their surface is smooth, but the petiole is slightly pubescent. The leaf plate has an original pattern: two strips of different shades of green alternate along the central core.
Their color depends on the brightness of the lighting: if less direct sunlight hits the arrowroot, the shades become slightly darker. The scape and lower side of the leaf of this species have a reddish-pink shade and slightly pubescent.
Take a look at the photo of this variety of arrowroot: the plant attracts the attention of unusual colors.
Unfortunately, such exotic beauty is rarely grown by amateur growers. Even experienced specialists rarely choose a two-colored maranta as an indoor or greenhouse plant.
Reed view exceeds 1 m in height, and the leaves can reach the length of 25 cm. In the wild, it grows in South and Central America. Exotic has an exquisite color of leaf cover: a dark green shade is in harmony with a grayish-gray. Flowers on the reed marante appear once a year: they are small, inconspicuous, have a white or cream shade. This maranta is rarely used as a houseplant because of its large size.
The Marantovaya family has amazing varieties with non-standard coloring. For example, the white-clad type includes:
She is very gentle and demanding to the environment, growing conditions.
Variety leaves "Massangeana» differ in light central veins from which thin graceful strips disperse on each side, and brown spots.
Compared with the rest of the Marantovaya family, this is a small plant: the length of its leaves rarely reaches 15 cm. Due to this size, the leaf plates have a regular oval shape.
After reviewing the brief description, take a look at the photo of the variety “Massangeana” of the marant belozhilchataya species: a resident of tropical forests is easy to grow at home.
Other exotic varieties of folded leaf sheaths also develop large elongate-oval leaves with interesting patterns:
In the variety "Erithroneura»Leaf veins bright red, the underside of the leaf is purple-red.
In the variety "Kerchoviana»Leaves are emerald green, the pattern is dark green-brown.
The undoubted advantage of "praying grass" is that you do not need to wait for the flowering period, like most exotic animals, to enjoy its beauty. Unusual leaves look spectacular at any time of the year, and it is also interesting to watch them rise in the evening and return to the horizontal position in the morning.
Take a look at the photo of this home flower: Leaves can be considered for a long time, admiring the color and texture of leaves.
Features care for indoor flower arrowroot (with video)
Although the arrowroot is a tropical plant, growing it is very simple. For room exotus you need to choose the right location: bright, without direct sun. It is necessary to exclude hit on the leaves of bright rays, especially in spring and summer and early autumn. Direct illumination can lead to the fact that the arrowroot stops growing, its leaves will be lighter than the other specimens of the selected species that are in the penumbra.
Watering is an integral part of home flower care. Exotic arrowroot needs moderate soil moisture. To do this, you can use only "soft" water - rainwater is ideal.
Watering regulate depending on the season: in summer, the substrate should be constantly wet, in the winter - almost dry. It is necessary to avoid stagnant waterlogging and drying, because it can lead to rotting of the roots or wilting of the plant.
Air humidity matters: she must be tall. This will help to recreate the natural conditions for the growth of arrowroot. Moisture-loving indoor flower is desirable to spray daily with soft water, thus avoiding the drying up of the tips of the leaves of the plant.
In addition to spraying, in the hot season, arrowroot can be “bathed”: only the upper parts of the plant (stems and leaves) should be in the shower. The pot with the earth is tightly wrapped with a film so that the liquid does not fall on the substrate.
Such procedures are the basis of the healthy appearance of the plant, the bright color of the leaves. It is worth paying attention that water for spraying should be at room temperature, without the content of lime salts.
To constantly maintain the required level of moisture in the air, experts advise to use a little trick. For high-quality care of arrowroot, an exotic indoor flower is placed on a pallet filled with wet expanded clay, pebbles or sphagnum. In addition to basic water treatments, this will help protect the plant from drying out.
A necessary condition for the growth of exot is the correct substrate: flower soil with styrene powder. Caring for arrowroot at home provides for flower feeding every 2 week. For the first time, it is worth making fertilizer in early spring, when active growth of arrowroot begins.
The main thing is not to overdo it, because this exot is very sensitive to the amount of nutrients in the substrate. For fertilizing choose liquid fertilizer with a complex composition, which is suitable for deciduous plants. The solution should be weak, and it should be placed in the soil in small quantities so that there is no excess moisture.
Maranta loves warmly, the temperature is not lower than 15 ° C. But the plant will feel great at 20-23 ° C in the summer.
In winter, the care of arrowroot provides for the creation of optimal conditions for a houseplant: the absence of sudden temperature changes and limited watering. The soil should be wet, but liquids should not stagnate in the substrate. In the cold season, the soil is moistened when it dries on 2-3, see
Important! "Kerchoviana" feels great in the room, all the rest - in the confined space of the showcase. They can also be kept in shallow pots.
Look at the video features of the care for arrowroot: even a novice grower can grow this exotic plant:
Planting arrowroot and how to transplant a bush at home
Since the root system in the plant is small and tuberiform, it does not need frequent transplants. This procedure is carried out if necessary, but not more often than once in 1,5-2 of the year. Before transplanting arrowroot shrubs, a wide and shallow pot, preferably plastic or clay glazed containers, is chosen for the “praying grass”. It is necessary to take into account the fact that the root of the arrowroot grows very slowly, so you should not take a pot with a large “margin” of space: it should be more than the previous one by a few centimeters.
Planting an exotic arrowroot requires preliminary preparation of the container with the correct substrate. At the bottom of the pot place a thick layer of expanded clay or other drainage, which prevents the stagnation of the liquid in the soil. The second layer is weakly alkaline soil: it consists of garden soil, peat and sand. The amount of land for the plant should be half the mixture, peat and sand are mixed in the ratio 2: 1. You can also use a bit of crushed coal and coniferous substrate. A plant with an old earthen clod on the roots is placed in a new pot, adding the required amount of soil.
These are the basic rules of how to simply transplant arrowroot in a normal home environment. After the procedure, it is necessary to moisten the soil and spray the plant. This guarantees the necessary level of air humidity for the exotic and the quick adaptation of the “praying grass” to the new ground.
An interesting and effective way to grow arrowroot is hydroponics. It is based on growth in artificial environment, without the presence of soil. This option allows you not to worry about constant watering and feeding plants. Exot receives nutrients from a special solution that surrounds the root system.
A significant drawback of this method is the need to carefully study all the features of hydroponics, the acquisition of a special basis for root nutrition. If it is not possible to automate the flow of fluid, this cultivation option will require the same frequent irrigation as the usual one in the substrate.
Caring for arrowroot: pruning a bush and how to form a houseplant
First, they carry out pruning of room arrowroot, removing dry, withered leaves. This will help the plant not to waste energy. So that the bush has a beautiful shape, experienced experts remove all the shoots, leaving only the internodes. But this method has several disadvantages: if you make mistakes with such a deep pruning, the plant can die.
If there are doubts about how to properly form an arrowroot shrub, you can cut off those shoots that prevent each other from growing: in their place will be young shoots.
After removing the dry parts of the praying grass, it is gently taken out of the pot, trying to keep parts of the old substrate on the roots. Tubers are also inspected, removing rotten parts. The trim line should be at least a few millimeters further from the affected area.
Reproduction of arrowroot cuttings and division
To get a new arrowroot seedling at home, you can use the reproduction of exotus by dividing and cuttings. In the first case, the bush is divided into several parts, depending on its size. Each day should be viable: have a sufficient number of shoots and roots. It is desirable to divide the plant in half: so young seedlings just have enough strength for independent development.
Division of arrowroot is best done when transplanting plants in spring. All separated parts carefully inspect, remove the rotten parts of the root, dry and wilted shoots and leaves. After they are planted in a substrate that is suitable for a leafy flower (slightly acidic soil with drainage at the bottom of the pot).
If you use division, the conditions for breeding and caring for arrowroot seedlings are very simple: they are poured over with water at room temperature, covered with film so that air gets inside, and put in a warm place. When there are young shoots and leaves, the film is removed, and the plant continues to care as well as for adult specimens.
If the arrowroot has a lot of shoots, you can multiply it by cuttings. To do this, cut off shoots of length 8-11, see. Each of them must have two or three internodes and a few leaves. The cut should be below the first node on 3-5, see. Cuttings are placed in water at room temperature and waiting for the first roots to grow on them.
- For reproduction of exotic arrowroot cuttings need from five to six weeks: after this time they can be planted in the substrate. In order for seedlings to settle down better in the ground, greenhouse conditions are created for them: the rooted cuttings are covered with a transparent film and removed after the plant has fully taken root.
- Young arrowroot needs to “harden”: when new shoots began to grow, the film was removed for short periods of time. In the first days of "quenching", it is enough to open it on 5-10 minutes, then this procedure is carried out several times a day. You need to pay attention to how the plant reacts to the cool air: if the leaves become a bit preoccupied, do not rush to get rid of the film.
It is best to conduct cuttings from mid-May to early September: shoots cut at this time are the strongest. In addition, a long light day contributes to the active growth of young plants.
Pests and diseases arrowroot: causes and treatment
The plant affects spider mites and mealybugs.
To determine the presence of spider mites on a plant can be on the thin and barely visible web that covers the underside of the leaves. The pest itself cannot be seen with the naked eye: the size of the arthropod does not exceed 1 mm. Spider mites feed on arrowroot cell sap, significantly damaging the leaves. Small transparent specks appear on them, the number of which gradually increases. The leaves begin to dry, and after a while they fall off.
The cause of these pests on arrowroot may be too dry air in the room. To get rid of spider mites and their larvae, damaged leaves are removed. The above-ground parts of the indoor flower are washed under running water, and after the plant is no longer wet, it is sprayed with one of the means against spider mites.
“Actellic” in concentrations of 0,15-0,20% or “Fitoverm” is perfect for this. It is also worth processing the pot and the tray on which the plant is placed. The soil is sprayed with a small amount of funds, after which the arrowroot is covered with a plastic bag, which limits the access of air. 2-3 hours are enough for this, the main thing is not to put the plant in a hot sunny place so that it does not suffocate. After the cellophane or film is carefully removed, and the exotus is tended the same way as before the disease.
In addition to pests, diseases can also be weakened, among which are anthracnose, brown or black fusarium rot, soot fungus and various types of spotting.
Antraknoz - fungal disease that manifests itself as spots on the leaves. The affected areas have a brown color and a light gray border, in their center there are small red or dark orange protuberances with fungal spores. Favorable conditions for the development of anthracnose - soil with high acidity and a large amount of moisture in the air. Damaged shoots and leaves should be immediately removed and the plant treated with fungicides. If after two procedures the fungus continues to develop, the plant is discarded and the pot is disinfected.
Another disease of arrowroot is a black fungus.. At the beginning of the disease on the plant appears dark gray patina. It can be easily removed by wiping the sheet with a piece of soft, damp cloth or sponge. But the specks quickly grow, combining into one. The reason for the development of the fungus are discharge from the vital activity of pests, therefore, first of all it is worth fighting with them. After this marante provide constant access of fresh air without drafts.
Spotting can be determined by the bright affected areas on the leaves, which gradually turn yellow. Spots appear simultaneously on the upper and lower side of the sheet. For the treatment of this disease in arrowroot use funds with fungicides. The first condition for the prevention of any type of spotting is the absence of stagnant air. There should be no gaps between the leaves, and the room where the plant is located should be systematically aired. At the same time make sure that the arrowroot is not in a draft.
Why the arrowroot leaf tips curl, turn yellow and dry: the reasons and what to do
It is necessary to notice in time the appearance of uninvited guests on the plant: if the arrowroot has dry, leaves curl and fall, you should carefully examine exotic for the presence of cobwebs.
Very rarely maranth affects the mealybug. Pest size ranges from 4 to 7 mm: You can recognize it by the characteristic white sticky coating that the insect produces. The mealybug is settled on young leaves and inside not yet opened buds. The high temperature of the air contributes to the development of the pest - around 27 ° C, which is not suitable for a tropical plant, and too much fertilizer in the soil.
The vital activity of the mealybug can be the answer to the question of why the arrowroot leaves turn sharply yellow. Pests suck out sap from plant cells, spread toxic plaque on the surface of leaves and stems.
You can fight them with soap solution. 20 g of simple soap without aromatic additives and dyes diluted in 1 l of water at room temperature and treated with the aerial parts of the plant.
After the plant is sprayed with clear liquid to remove residual solution. If this procedure did not help, you can purchase a special tool to combat the mealybug.
Aktara, Fitoverm, Calypso, Confidor or Biotlin will do.
Pests seldom affect praying grass. The main reason for their appearance is improper landing and lack of proper care for arrowroot at home. Pest larvae are in the environment, but in order for them not to start developing on the arrowroot, you need to follow the rules for the care of exotics.
Inspect the plant should be weekly, paying particular attention to the underside of the leaves and petioles. If pests start, you need to get rid of them immediately, because the more larvae have time to put off the spider mite and mealybug, the more difficult it is to completely remove them.
When exotic looks weak, and its leaves gradually lose their original bright color, you need to think about the reasons for the changes. Many gardeners are wondering what to do if the arrowroot leaves turn yellow.
This is the first signal that the “praying grass” is being looked after incorrectly, and the plant reacts to stress by changing the color and texture of the leaf plates. We need to remember the basic principles of irrigation: the amount of liquid should be small, but the substrate should not dry out. In the warm season, arrowroot is sprayed daily with water at room temperature. It must be separated and not have lime salts.
Beginning gardeners often do not understand why it is the tips of the leaves that dry the arrowroot. Such a problem may occur in plants that receive an insufficient amount of nutrients from the soil.
Here you need to apply the rule of the "golden mean": when fertilizing the soil, any deviation from the norm is fraught with wilt of arrowroot. If, in addition to dry tips, yellowish-brown spots appear on the leaves, care must be taken to add fertilizer to the substrate. At the same time, they do not expect a quick result: in order for it to appear, the plant needs time for rehabilitation.
Reasons why maranth lowered leaves down
If the arrowroot has dropped its leaves down, this also indicates errors in watering or temperature conditions. Excessive amount of fluid in the substrate, drafts and low temperature cause sluggish and lowered greens.
In order to understand whether there is enough moisture, they orient themselves not only to dry tips, but also to yellowed leaves: in tandem, these signs indicate that the plant needs to be watered more often.
With the onset of twilight, “praying grass” lifts the leaves almost vertically and slightly bends them.
But this is not the answer to the question of why leaves curl around the edges of the arrowroot: such a defect causes a cool temperature and a constant lack of fluid in the soil. If you correct the situation in time, the plant will please with a healthy appearance and unusually bright colors.
Large yellow spots that quickly appear on the leaves can be burns. In this case, you need to follow the lighting arrowroot in the daytime. It should not be exposed to direct sunlight, ideal would be diffused light. The reason that the arrow cutter suddenly lowered the leaves, may be wrong for her too shady place. It is necessary to move the pot closer to the source of diffused lighting and observe the reaction of the indoor flower. The problem will not go away immediately, but it will not get worse.
Adhering to simple rules, you can grow a healthy and beautiful plant, which will be the original decoration of any room.