Crossander (Crossandra infundibuli-formis) - genus of tropical plants of the family Acanthaceae (Acanthus). Homeland: India, Ceylon.
In nature, it is a deciduous shrub with funnel-shaped flowers of yellow, orange or salmon color, collected in spike-shaped inflorescences up to 15 cm long. It has direct shoots, rather branched, brown or green. The leaves are saturated green with a glossy surface, up to 9, see. Crossander has large flowers of various shades of orange and red flowersas well as white and yellow. In nature, flowering continues almost all year round. The shrub grows very quickly, and in natural habitats the plant reaches a meter height; We sell undersized cultivars.
Types and varieties of crossbands
At home, cross-country, in India, there are about 50 species. In the home gardening such cross-countries are known:
The most widespread in home floriculture received funnel cross-country. This shrub reaches a height of 30-50 cm, has oppositely located glossy leaves of dark green color with a petiole structure. Brilliant leaves with pointed ends and wavy edges look elegant and spectacular.
The most common variety of this species is Mona wallhed. It is characterized by abundant bloom of bright red flowers.
Also popular with flower growers is the Fortune variety.which has yellow blooms almost all year round. The inflorescences reach the size of 15 cm, and the bush itself grows no higher than 30 cm. This makes the cross-country even more effective and more elegant.
Crossander spiny has a yellow-orange color of flowers. The plant itself is short, perennial, with lanceolate leaves.
Nile Crossander has orange-red flowersIts leaves are glossy, elliptical in shape.
Guinean crossander - low-growing plant, has lanceolate leaves on short cuttings, and flowers - lilac color.
How to care for heat-loving cross-country at home
Being an unpretentious plant, the cross-country reacts sharply to the lack of care and concern. For successful cultivation, the plant must create a comfortable environment, which include:
- Good lighting.
- Content room temperature.
- Proper watering.
- Wet air.
- Regular feeding.
- Timely transplant.
The indoor herbaceous cross-country plant loves well-lit places. Best location: bright, to half shade. The plant does not tolerate direct sunlight, so windows oriented to the west and east will be the best choice. If the flower is located on the south window, then you need to take care of protection from the bright sun. In the shadow of the cross-over will develop poorly and may stop flowering.
Take a look at the photo, how the indoor cross-flower looks like in the interior of the apartment when following simple rules for caring for it:
It is important to note that the bush must be periodically turned by different sides to the light, so that it is not one-sided.
The plant loves heat all year round, because it is important to comply with the appropriate temperature regime. The optimum summer temperature is + 22 ... + 24 ° С, in winter - not lower than + 18 ° С. In the warm season, the homely heat-loving crossander flower can be placed outdoors, in the garden or on the balcony, finding a place protected from drafts and rain. Sudden temperature fluctuations can adversely affect the plant, and it is likely to shed its leaves.
When growing blossoming cross-country at home and caring for it, watering and spraying are important components of its successful development and growth. To select the optimal irrigation tactics of a plant, it is necessary to take into account the natural conditions of its growth.
The growing season stops with the termination of the rainy season and the beginning of the dry season. Therefore, watering: in the period of growth and flowering - abundant, 3-4 once a week, from October to February - limited. It is important to feel the difference between a slightly moist ground and a damp one.
Water should be soft water at room temperature. The use of rainwater for watering the flower is welcomed, and it is better to keep the plumbing water within 24 hours to reduce the chlorine content in it.
Immediately after watering, it is imperative to drain the liquid from the pan so that the bottom of the pot is not in the water. If you ignore this recommendation, there is a risk of getting rotten roots and losing the plant.
When caring for a cross-flower, it is important to provide the necessary humidity at home. It should be high - up to 60%. Maintain humidity indicators at this level will help household humidifier or simple tricks. For example, a pot with a plant placed on a pallet filled with wet clay.
In addition, you can often spray the soil and leaves, trying not to moisten the flowers! The leaves react very well to spraying, they are straightened out, and the plant literally comes to life. But funnel-shaped flowers can rot from moisture.
If the plant is located near a radiator in the winter, you can periodically place wet towels on the battery so that the air is not too dry. There is one more simple method - it is better to grow a tropical beauty in a ceramic flowerpot, because moisture does not evaporate from it as quickly as from plastic.
Transplantation and cross-dressing
Before you take care of a cross-store bought in a store, you should definitely transplant it at home. This is necessary because the soil in which flowers are sold is transport and does not meet the requirements of the plant. Drainage should be placed on the bottom of the pot, it can be fine expanded clay or pebbles. Since the plant will be watered often and abundantly, any water retention can have a detrimental effect on the crossander.
For planting it is necessary to take nutritious light soil. It should consist of equal parts:
- Leafy land.
- Of humor.
Young crosslands need annual transplantation, and when the plant is strong, its root system is developed and the crown is formed, it will be enough to replant it every few years. Transplanting should be carried out in February, when flowering has not yet begun.
In the care of indoor cross-flower, regular dressings are as mandatory as watering. To do this, you can use any complex fertilizer for flowering home perennials, such as "Plantafol" or "Master Color".
These are mineral fertilizers, and organic must be used carefully, infrequently and in small dosages. Feeding is done every 14 days from March to August. However, if flowering continues, then feeding should not be stopped. Around mid-November, it is desirable to reduce watering and fertilizing the plant and give it a rest.
Pruning shoots crosslandra: how to prune a houseplant
After the end of the flowering period, pruning of the shoots is carried out, the temperature of the content decreases slightly and the rest period begins. Before you cut home cross-country, you need to determine what the appearance of the plant should be, arm itself with shears and cut off the long cuttings. In addition, you need to remove all dried branches, leaves and flowering inflorescences.
The dormant period will last until the beginning of February, and then you need to prune the sprouts of the cross-jars again by about a third of their length and arrange the beautiful crown. Along with shortening long shoots, they are also pinched. This action will give the plant the opportunity to release the side shoots, and the ornamental shrub will be lush and elegant.
Watch a video about caring for a cross-country where all the transplant activities are clearly shown, pruning and shaping bush:
Breeding method of cross-flower at home by cuttings
There are two ways to propagate room cross-country:
It is logical that having a flowering plant in the collection, it is better to propagate it by grafting. This method is much simpler, more efficient and more reliable than growing from seed. Besides breeding indoor flower Crossander cuttings guarantee that there will be no loss of signs of a particular species, and as a result, the young plant will exactly repeat the characteristics of the mother plant.
For reproduction by apical or stem cuttings, patience and some skills are required. The optimum rooting time is in February, at a soil temperature of + 20 ... + 25 ° C. For breeding cross-cutting, you need to prepare cuttings of length 10-15 cm and place them in water.
You can add a small amount of growth stimulant to the liquid, for example, “Kornevina”. When the roots grow 1,5 cm long, you can transfer the cuttings into separate pots. The composition of the soil should be the same as for transplanting a plant.
As a rule, there are no problems with the survival of cross-country when reproducing cuttings at home. The plant adapts rather quickly, and care should be taken to ensure that it is the same as for an adult flower. In young plants, more often pinch the shoots to stimulate tillering.
How to propagate a decorative crossander seeds at home
When reproduction by seeds it is necessary to take into account that they are characterized by low germination. To begin, the seeds need to soak for several hours in warm water. In the meantime, a prepared substrate should be poured into the seedling container: flower soil mixed with polystyrene crumb. The soil must be moistened and well loosen.
Next is the surface sowing of seeds: they do not need to go deep into the substrate and fall asleep from above. The soil should be warm, and the container covered with polyethylene or glass to protect against drafts and cold air.
When a decorative crossander is grown from seeds at home, it is important to maintain the temperature of the soil and the environment at + 25 ° C and ensure that the light enters.
Depending on the quality of the seed and the variety of the plant, seed germination can vary from 14 days to 2 months.
After about a month of 1,5, when the seedlings are strong, you can move it to separate pots. The soil should consist of peat and sand in equal parts. It should be noted that young seedlings, although they often bloom in the year of sowing, do not produce such abundant flowering as adult plants.
Major diseases and pests
The main problems faced by the owners of cross-country are such pests and diseases:
Falling and twisting of leaves.
Lack of flowering.
- If the plant turns yellow or leaves fall, then this may be due to the drying of the roots. Also, the cause of this disease heat-loving cross-country can be a sharp decrease in temperature, direct sunlight and drafts. Drying of the tips of the leaves may also indicate dry indoor air.
- If the plant is excessively moisturized, then there is a risk of leaf mold. It manifests itself as brown spots all over the surface of the leaf plate and the affected leaves gradually dry out. When a disease is detected, treatment with systemic fungicide is necessary, and damaged leaves must be removed.
- The main pests parasitizing on the cross-border: aphid, b heart and spider mite. They can move to a flower from other household plants and destroy it. Detect parasites is not difficult by their characteristic features.
- Aphids are well visualized on plants: they have deformed tops, leaves are twisted and covered with a sticky secret. The parts of the plant most populated by the pest need to be removed, and the bush itself should be bathed in the shower and the leaves washed with a solution of soap.
- Caterpillar secretes white sticky mucus, which gives the impression that the plant is sprinkled with flour. The pest settles in the axils of the leaves, in buds and on young shoots. To destroy the parasite, you can resort to the national method of struggle with the help of a soap-alcohol solution. Need to take 1 h. Spoonful of rubbed soap and 3 Art. spoons of alcohol or vodka on 1 liters of water. The plant is sprayed with this solution every 4 of the day, trying not to fall on the ground.
- Spider mite feeds on plant sap. It can be found by turning the leaf, where colonies of parasites are attached along the veins. On infected plants you can see a thin web. The plant should be treated with a solution of household soap and wash it with warm water. Carefully need to handle and pot, tray and window sill.
In the fight against all these pests can be used and purchased systemic insecticides, such as "Fosfamid."
The reasons why cross-country does not bloom
Often the florist raises the question of why the cross-flower does not bloom at all or does not bloom sufficiently. The reasons may be as follows:
- Not enough light.
- Not trimmed.
- The plant needs to be updated.
- Very young seedling.
Based on the above points, the measures to eliminate this problem are also clear. If the cross-country does not bloom for a long time due to the lack of light, then you need to rearrange it or highlight it additionally. Shoots need to be timely cut and pinch to stimulate flowering. If the plant is more than 4 years old, then it needs to be transplanted or updated.