Codiaeum flower, otherwise Croton is the most famous Codiaeum variegatum var. rictum, has numerous varieties of different shapes and colors of leaves.
It was first described in 1690 by naturalist and gardener Rumfis, a Dutchman by birth. It is a perennial shrub reaching a height of up to 4 m in the wild or special greenhouses, and up to 70 cm - in room conditions. This is a perennial plant of the family Euphorbiaceae (Euphorbia). Homeland is considered Southeast Asia.
It has an erect branched trunk, covered with large - up to 30 cm in length - leaves. In the description of foliage codiam worth mentioning about its great diversity. There is no classic or standard appearance of this flower. Leathery leaves can be narrow, long, wide or oval; wavy, serrated or twisted into a spiral. In addition, with age, the plant often changes the color and shape of the leaves.
How blooms indoor ornamental plant codeium
In its appearance, the flower combines all shades of the autumn palette. Color varies from yellow and green to orange and red with a pattern in a small speck, with spots, stripes or eye-catching veins. There are even dark brown, almost black sheets with bright streaks. The older the leaf, the brighter its color. It is such a riot of colors that attracts the attention of both professional growers and amateurs.
Bright codiaeum blooms, like many ornamental deciduous plants, faded and inconspicuous - small white or barely yellowish flowers, gathered in small racemes of 15-20 pieces. Flowers grow both female and male. Male representatives can be recognized by fluffy stamens on each slightly twisted petal, and female representatives by curved three petals.
This rather whimsical plant can grow over 15 years under the right conditions. Looks great in the spacious bright rooms, winter gardens and verandas. It is popular with the regulars of greenhouse exhibitions and artificial gardens.
For initial review below are photos of a beautiful Codiaeum flower (including a blooming specimen) - study them.
Types and varieties of codiaeum: photos, names and descriptions of varieties
There are about 17 codiaeum species in the world and more than 1000 varieties.
List of known plant species:
All types of code with photos and official names are presented below - read them.
The indoor representatives of this plant are hybrid forms of one botanical species. Codiaeum variegatum or simply motley codia (variegated). The name speaks for itself, because it is a very bright representative of the plant world. An interesting fact is that it is the plants of this species that can change the size, color and shape of the leaves, depending on environmental conditions and age.
Please note: below is a photo of the motley codec view for review.
Among the variety there are both large shrubs with large large leaves, and small-leaved specimens.
Look through the presented codium flower species with photos and titles. Each of them is special in its own way, and there will definitely be a favorite for every home vegetation lover:
Oval leaves (ovalifolium).
The genuinous variety has a distinctive feature - it is a golden or silver painting along the central vein of the leaf. The shape of the leaves can be oval, lanceolate or elliptical-lanceolate.
- Oval leaves - leaves are slightly oblong flat. Along the central vein of the leaf there are bright yellow spots.
- Painted variety - has oval wide leaves with a margin turned upwards.
- Tortoise variety - a leaf of the heart-shaped oblong form. Coloring is olive-red with golden patterns.
- Three-lobed variety - has a three-part oblong leaf shape, similar to the foliage of oak.
- Wrapped variety - wide lanceolate leaves of oblong shape twisted inside. An adult plant in shape close to an oval or a ball.
Due to the variety of leaf shapes, a modern plant classification has been introduced. Varieties of the flower codiaum on the outline of the leaf:
- Blade shape - large, wide (up to 7-8 cm), long (up to 22-23 cm) leaves can be either solid or three-component.
- Narrow-leaved form - The length of the foliage reaches 20 cm, width - no more than 1-1,5 cm.
- Predatkovaya form - one of the most original. The wide oval sheet plate with a pointed end smoothly passes into the second sheet of the same shape, but smaller.
- Curly shape - The sheet plate is long (up to 20 cm) and narrow (up to 2 cm), twisted into a spiral or simply wavy.
All varieties of Codiaeum flower amaze with its beauty and originality. Below is a list of the most popular 7 of them, differing from each other by the unique shape of the leaves and the character of the color.
"Excellent" croton or gorgeous - reaches a height of up to 0,5 m. Has a three-lobed leaf shape, in outline resembling an oak leaf. It has a red-green color with blotches of pink and golden hues. The more mature the process, the more it acquires variegated flowers. Such a variety is demanding to conditions of detention.
"Petra" - upright growing plant with large leaves of lobed shape, alternately arranged along the stem. The range of colors varies from shades of green to bright yellow (especially the yellow tinges are the strands of the sheets).
«Gold Star"(" Golden Star ") - Croton, the narrow leaves of which form some "inflorescences", shaped like a star. The color gamut basically has dark green hues with light yellow splashes and stripes. Their number depends on the age of the flower.
"Mrs. Aiston" - grade indoor small flower Codiaeum, with medium-sized leaves with pronounced elegant patterns. The color range varies from green to dark red.
"Spirale" - an unusual variety with spirally twisted leaves up to 25 cm. It has a bright red-yellow-green color, presented in the form of multi-colored spots.
"Codiaeum Mammy" - A variety with very large curly leaves that twist along the central core to the very tip. The lower tiers are painted in green and white tones. And the middle and upper leaves have red, pink, orange and yellow shades.
«Gold san"(" Golden Sun ") - a grade with an oval form of sheets. It has a light green color gamut with different size yellow spots and dots.
How to care for indoor flower codiaum when grown at home
Caring for a codiame flower is a rather painstaking business that requires special efforts and the creation of certain environmental conditions. In order for the plant to enjoy its riot of colors for many years, it is necessary to pay attention to such a number of factors:
- Air temperature.
- Air humidity.
- Soil type
- Watering frequency.
Caring for codiaeum (croton) at home begins with choosing the right place for flower growth. The location is preferably bright, but without exposure to direct sun.
Best suited windows on the west and east sides. It is possible to grow on the south side, but on condition that it is located not on the windowsill, but in places devoid of the influence of direct sunlight. With a lack of diffused light, the color fades and fades. And with its oversupply, it is possible to lose all the patterns and dye in a pure green color.
The most favorable temperature for growing a codiame flower is from + 21 to + 23 degrees in summer, and in winter - not lower than + 15 degrees. it heat-loving plant does not tolerate abrupt changes in microclimate and drafts. Therefore, it is not necessary to put a pot with a flower on the street or an open balcony, and in the winter period of the year it is necessary to limit the access of cold air through the insulation of window and door openings. Croton prefers stagnant warm air - and this is one of the important conditions for its safe cultivation.
Important! With a sufficiently warm temperature and humidity, codiaeum can live for a very long time, so the roots must be kept warm, otherwise the plant sheds leaves.
Codium refers to indoor plants that love high humidity. Therefore, it is very important to regularly spray warm clean settled water around the pot with a spray bottle.
The standard floral soil mixture for deciduous ornamental plants is perfect as a substrate. Such soil can be purchased at a specialty store. It should be well drained, loose, moist and breathable. The main main components for a suitable soil: leaf and turf soil, peat, sand and charcoal.
Caring for home flowers codeiiu in terms of watering is extremely simple. Watering should be moderately plentiful, with warm soft water, settled for at least 1 days. In the summer, it is necessary to prevent the soil from drying out, the ground should always be wet, but “stagnation” of water is unacceptable. This can lead to decay of the rhizome and the death of the plant. The most optimal summer irrigation mode - 2-3 times a week. In winter, the intensity must be reduced to 1 times in 7-8 days. Water should not be below room temperature.
For complex care at home for the flower of the codiaum, fertilizing is required every 2-4 of the week with the help of mineral fertilizers for deciduous plants for decorative use. In winter, much less - up to 1 times in 1,5-2 months.
How to properly care for codiaum at home is described in the video below:
Thanks to the simple secrets of care, Croton will delight with its beauty for many years.
How to transplant kodieum with proper care of the flower
Codieum flower transplants may need up to 2 once a year. This is due to the rapid growth of the plant and the rapid growth of the root system, which, filling the entire space of the pot, will not be able to develop further. In this case, the growth rate will immediately decrease noticeably, the leaves will begin to fall off. New capacity should be on 2-2,5 cm larger in diameter than the previous one. As a rule, an adult, finally formed croton, is placed in a pot with a diameter of 25-27, see. Of course, with age the flower no longer has such an active growth rate, and transplantation will be needed less often. It is enough to update the top layers of the 1 substrate every 6-8 months.
In terms of care and transplantation, codiae at home is quite complicated and even dangerous to health. Be careful! Juice irritates the skin and mucous membranes. Therefore, when it comes into contact with the skin, it is necessary to immediately rinse the affected area on the body with running cold water. It is best to use household gloves (nitrile or rubber) when working and caring for such a plant. And, of course, do not start such a plant in the presence of small children in the house and pets.
Codyium flower transplantation at home is usually done in spring or summer. To do this, select a wide (in diameter up to 12-13 cm) and a shallow (no more than 17 cm in height) pot, cover the bottom with large expanded clay - a layer at least 2,5 thick, see.
It is also possible to use broken brick or small gravel as a drainage. Then the container should be filled with the substrate, not reaching the top of the 3-4 pot. See Make a small depression in the center and plant the plant so that the roots do not touch the drainage layer. A little rammed the ground, pour the substrate to the very edge of the pot. Sprinkle with warm, settled water. Remember that the pot itself must be placed on a saucer with water covered with gravel. This will ensure the humidity of the earth in hot periods.
Below is a video on how to properly transplant codiaum flower at home. Look at it in order to facilitate the transplant process or for general information:
Formation and the process of pruning codiaeum: how to form the crown of a plant
The pruning of a codiaeum flower is done in spring or summer in order to get a more “fluffy” and branched plant, in the form resembling a small tree. Also, thanks to this procedure, you can get a few young shoots for planting, and the parent croton will move into a phase of more active growth and start new shoots. Pruning is done only on already sufficiently adult individuals with a height of at least 30-35, see. Such a procedure is destructive for small flowers.
Formation of a branched codiam is not a particularly complicated process.. Armed with gloves, a sharp knife or scissors, cut off the top of a tree about 13-15 in length. See the cut part can be put in warm clear water to develop its root system. An adult plant is watered reasonably well, and new young shoots will grow through the month of 1-1,5. The same method is cut off excess branches. With regular moderate pruning, you can grow a plant with the shape of a miniature symmetric tree.
For a codiam, the crown formation process is also carried out using the pinching method. This procedure can be started in younger individuals up to 15-17 height. See the essence of this process is to trim the buds at the ends of the shoots and apical buds in order to activate the growth of the side shoots and branching of the plant stem. The best time for such a procedure is early spring, when the flower is full of energy and is able to develop healthy young shoots.
Watch the video on how to form the crown crownum at home:
Reproduction codiaeum seeds, cuttings and leaf at home
The reproduction of this amazing plant can be done using:
- Cherenkov (leaves).
- Tops with a preliminary incision.
Reproduction codiame seeds at home is subject to the cultivation of hybrid forms. This breeding method takes a lot of time and effort, and also makes it impossible to save varietal traits in a new plant. But he has the right to exist. For this breeding method, only freshly harvested seeds should be used. Before planting, warm them up in hot water (temperature from 60 to 68 degrees) for 30-40 minutes, and then leave for 20-27 hours to swell in the same liquid.
After the seed material has increased in size, you can proceed to direct planting. To do this, pour the nutrient substrate into a wide pot and place seeds to a depth of 1-1,5. Favorable temperature for germination - + 22 ... + 24 degrees. Until the first shoots appear, watering should be carried out through the bottom saucer. After each leaf has three sheets, you can begin to plant each in a separate pot with a diameter of up to 7-8, see.
Reproduction of the flower codiaeum cuttings - perhaps the most common and simple method. This vegetative method is easiest to apply with respect to the apical cutting, which can be easily obtained with the planned pruning of the plant. The main condition in the selection of the process is the presence of at least one internode and one full-fledged healthy leaflet. Mature, already slightly lignified cuttings are best rooted.
When breeding codiame leaf for the rooting process, the finished trimmed stalk is washed with running water, dried for 3-5 hours. In the upper part of the appendix, each leaf is cut in half, the incision is made parallel to the veins, and the lower sheets are carefully cut with a knife. Next, it is enough to place the cutting in warm water until the germination of rhizomes up to 2-2,5 cm. Then you can plant the process in the nutrient soil for its cultivation. After it is necessary to care for the indoor flower of the codiame, as well as for the adult plant, maintaining abundant diffused lighting, heat and moisture.
Reproduction by tips with a preliminary notch or the “air diversion” method is best used in the summer. To do this, a circular incision of the bark should be made on the section of the top without leaves, and at a distance of 1-1,5, see another one.
After removing the surface of the bark from the area between them and treat with a stimulant for rooting. Then it is necessary to wrap the cut with moss and wrap a dark film in the form of a bag, tied the edges with thread. During rooting, it is necessary to moisten the cut site with warm water, and after strong roots grow, and this happens no earlier than in 1 a month, you can cut the process with a new rhizome and put it in a pot with the ground. At first, you can cover the pot with a film to create a greenhouse effect.
Common Codieum Diseases and Their Treatment
The most common flower diseases are codiae:
- Root rot.
Antraknoz - A fungal disease that manifests itself as gray and or gray-red spots. For treatment, it is necessary to apply a course of treatment of the plant and soil with a fungicide with a break of 10-15 days. Recovery will take place after the 3-4 th disinfection time.
Signs of fading and soft leaves of the flower are considered signs of root rot. The root system becomes watery and exfoliated. Very often mold appears on the ground surface. To combat this disease, first of all, they replace the soil with dry soil, reduce the abundance and frequency of irrigation. A solution of antifungal drugs (for example, such as Fitosporin-M or Alirin-B) is poured into the saucer.
The video below details the codiaum diseases and their treatment:
Such information will be useful for all owners of such an elegant handsome man. After all, knowing about the risk of the disease, you can prevent its occurrence.
Codiam pest insects
The most common pests for codia, which can attack a beautiful flower and even destroy it in the absence of recreational activities, are:
- Spider mite.
- The scarlet.
- Multi-claw mite.
spider mite - It is an insect of red color and small size. As a rule, it dwells on the underside of a leaf, wrapping the surface with a white thin web. If the plant starts this pest, then there are small white dots and spots over the entire surface of the leaves. If time does not withdraw mite, there is a chance of drying the flower. To eliminate it, it is necessary to disinfect the entire surface of the plant using tobacco infusion with laundry soap, then rinse well with warm water and treat it with ground sulfur or ready store preparation (insecticide). Spider mite can be the reason why leaves near codiaum dry.
Shield - It is a pest that causes dark brown spots on the entire surface of the plant. It reproduces very rapidly, adult individuals sit motionlessly, hiding behind “shields” from which small larvae creep out. Spreading, they infect a large area of the flower. To eliminate this pest, it is enough to moisten a cotton pad with soapy water and manually remove all foci of infection. This procedure is carried out repeatedly until complete elimination of the pest.
Redhead - it appears very often in a room flower called codiaum in the form of white waxy secretions on the veins of the leaves and petioles of the plant. The pest is very tiny in size and lives in colonies. To eliminate it, it is necessary to isolate the plant from other household flowers and start treating the affected areas with mineral oil, under the film of which the worm will suffocate. It is necessary to carry out the procedure in dim sunlight and until all the colonies of the pest have been eliminated.
Multi-claw mite - the main feature of this pest is the appearance of brown crusts on the petioles of the plant and the cessation of leaf growth at the ends of the shoots, their roughness and twisting down. To combat this pest, it is enough to treat the plant with mineral oil, or laundry soap, or ready-made store preparation (“Fitoverm”, “Vertimek”, etc.).
Below are photos of the varieties of codiaeum diseases and its most common pests, which can be used to study in detail how external signs of a lesion look like:
Why does codiaum dry the tips of the leaves, and what if the flower drops them?
Often, adverse changes in the appearance of the croton are not caused by pests or any diseases, but by the banal non-observance of the plant conditions.
If the tips of most leaves of a codiaeum dry, then, most likely, the temperature regime of the content is disturbed. At low temperatures a similar problem may occur. Or the plant was for a long time under scorching sunlight, which led to their dehydration. Poor watering may also contribute to this problem. To avoid such a situation, it is necessary to ensure the balance of heat and moisture for such a tropical plant.
There are several reasons why the codiaeum began to shed leaves. Firstly, if this happens in the fall, and the lower leaves fall off, then the normal natural process takes place. So the flower gets rid of old leaves that burden it.
What to do if the codiaeum drops leaves from the top of the tree, prompts the room thermometer. If the temperature for a long time holds no more than + 15 degrees, then it is urgent to rearrange the flower pot to a warmer place. If there has been a sharp temperature drop, it is necessary to stabilize the temperature of the air in the room and strengthen the health of the whimsical Croton mineral fertilizers.
What should be done if leaves fall on a codiame?
If leaves fall in codiaeum, over-frequent or abundant watering may be the cause. In this case, the root system will rot and the plant will die. It is necessary to cut the apical stalk and try to root it. This is done as an insurance: if the mother plant does not survive, there will be a chance to grow a new one. You can try to reanimate a dead flower with the help of drying the roots and processing with antifungal preparations, after which you will need to transplant into a fresh substrate.
If the leaves of codiaum turn yellow and fall, the condition of the earthy coma can help to understand what needs to be done with such a problem. When it is very dry, the leaves of the plant may begin to turn yellow and crumble over time. The soil should always be moderately wet.
This can be verified by a very simple method. Just type a small handful in your hand and squeeze, the ground should crumple slightly and no water droplets should stand out. On a consistence it should remind a little rigid clay. If the lumps are not formed, and the earth just crumbles when you press it, then it is better to increase the frequency of watering, arranging a warm shower for Croton.