Calathea (Calathea crocata) refers to family Marantaceae (Marantovye). Homeland plants - Brazil.
This attractive species, a relative of arrowroot (Maranta), stromant (Stromanthe) and ctenants (Ctenanthe), most recently went on sale to flower shops. The name of the plant "Kalathea" is of Greek origin from the word "kalathos", which means "basket". Initially, its leaves were used by Brazilians to make baskets, which explains such an unusual name. Today, such a flower is more aesthetic decoration than industrial raw materials. Its appearance fascinates not only admirers of beauty, but also experienced flower growers, who have seen more than a dozen of attractive ornamental plants.
The homemade varieties of the Calatheum flower stand out among the indoor "oasis" with their variegated and majestic foliage. In turn, the inflorescences with bright orange-yellow flowers look luxurious against a background of dark green leaves with a red-brown underside. Flowers hold on for a long time. The flowering period most often falls on the spring-summer period. The height of this wonderful green "pet" can be 80-90 cm, while its oval leaves reach a length of about 35 cm. For a year with proper care, it can please its owners with the appearance of 5-6 new sheets.
Indoor plant species Calatheum decorate the room for many years, but for normal development require periodic transplantation. Among professional flower growers there is a comic nickname for this flower - “prayer.” This is due to the feature of placing the leaves in the evening. They rise and, turning towards each other, remind palms closed in prayer. The charm and beauty of such a home plant in a flower shop will surely attract the particular attention of the buyer.
Varieties and varieties of houseplant Calathea: photo, name and description
The family of maranths, whose representative is kalatea, pleases with its diversity and abundance of various interpretations of colors, inflorescences and forms. According to modern breeders, in nature there are many types of Calathea and more than a hundred varieties. But not all of them are cultivated and can grow at home.
For a more detailed acquaintance with the existing types of "home" Calatheva take a look at the photo with the specified names and read a brief description.
Saffron look (crocata) flower It is considered the most decorative representative among his family kin. The habitat is considered to be the Amazon coast. Oval leaves with corrugated edges have a rich green shade with a bright brown "inside". The inflorescences are located on elongated stems and are attracted by variegated orange colors. It is this trait that has fixed the nickname “eternal flame” to the plant. Attractive flare flowers bloom in winter and delight the eye for more than 4 months.
Particularly sophisticated is the amazing appearance of the Calatei plant, called the Medallion. A relatively low representative of his family, whose height barely reaches 40, see. The distinguishing features are its oval leaves, where on a dark green background one can see rich silver spots creating a unique and inimitable ornament. The purple reverse side of the leafy plate becomes noticeable in the evening when they gently turn in preparation for the “dream”.
The decorated calathea presented in the photo is a type of plant whose name confirms the presence of an elegant pattern on leafy plates:
Contrast white streaks on rich green leaves give them a special brightness and attractiveness.
At home, experienced growers cultivate one of the most beautiful varieties of this type of calathea - Sanderiana. Such an amazing flower reaches more than 50 cm in height with wide oblong leaves, on which are characteristic white and pale pink stripes from the midrib to the edges of the deciduous plate. The reverse side of the sheet is painted in a noble burgundy color.
Another variety of this type of calathea received the name Roseolineate due to the smooth transition of shades on the leaves from bright pink to silvery white. Such motley stripes, located in pairs from the central vein to the edges of the leaf plates, look very neat and elegant.
The lanceolate variety of the Calatheum flower is considered to be the most attractive representative of its kind. That is why there is another popular name among its people - wonderful. The height of this plant in the wild reaches 70 cm, but for its indoor varieties the maximum value of this parameter is 45-50, see. The foliage has a lanceolate structure, wavy edges and a slightly convex vein in the center. The color of the leafy plate is the main advantage of this species. Dark green stripes in combination with light ovals create a unique ornament that fascinates and attracts eyes.
A rather rare species of Calathea was named Lansifoliya. Even at home, this plant can reach 80 cm in height. The leaves of the flower are elongated with a distinctive light green color, on which dark spots are placed along the inner central vein. Delicate inflorescences of white or pale pink compactly arranged on low legs, creating a luxurious lush bouquet.
Calatey Varshevich is distinguished by exceptional refinement, which will easily decorate any room. A tall plant, reaching 90-120 cm, has beautiful wavy leaves with a velvet surface in a dark green color scheme and a lighter middle. The flowers of this type of calathea look like spikelets of white color with barely curved petals.
Tropical species Calathea - striped or Zebrina. A bright representative of his family, which is characterized by wide oval-shaped leaves with a length of about 40 cm and clearly shown stripes. Inflorescences are placed on short legs and, depending on the variety, can be white or with a lilac shade.
Admire this type of calathea, looking at the photo of its varieties:
Kaloya Makoya is interesting for florists exclusively for its abstract “painted” leaflets, since flowering is not peculiar to this plant..
According to its external parameters, which confirms the proposed photo, this type of calathea is among the compact plants, the height of which does not exceed 30-40, see:
Leaf plates have a silvery surface with dark green stripes and spots, creating original patterns and ornaments in their combination. Long stalks of leaves of lilac color have a little hairiness. The reverse side of the sheet plate duplicates the pattern from the "front" side, but in darker tones of brown-purple color.
For greater clarity of the description, take a look at the photo of species of kalata and their varieties with the following names:
This beautiful plant fascinates with its variety of patterns, shades and shapes of graceful leaves.
Terms of care for indoor flower Calathea
Growing a calathea plant is quite a difficult and difficult task. Any experienced grower will confirm the capriciousness and demands of this home flower. Therefore, to provide the necessary conditions for the normal life of ornamental shrubs under the force is not for everyone. Pay attention to the need for proper humidity, temperature stability, adequate lighting.
- Location: half-shaded, which does not provide direct sunlight.
- Temperature: increased all year round, even in winter not lower than 16 ° С. It is important to ensure the stability of the temperature regime, which in the warm season would be + 21 ... + 25 ° C, and even in the harsh winter it was at least + 16 ... + 19 ° C. The absence of drafts is a prerequisite for the normal growth of motley beautiful women.
- Air humidity: high - 80-90%. Good conditions creates a closed showcase for indoor plants, which provides the necessary lighting, maintains a constant temperature and humidity. Regularly, it is necessary to spray with softened water or to provide high humidity in a non-contact way.
- Substrate: flower soil mixture, which can be purchased at any specialized flower shop.
The list of vital conditions for the normal development of this home bush is far from exhaustive. Therefore, further it is worthwhile to sort out in detail how to properly care for the graceful indoor flower of calathea before decorating your home with it. But all efforts and efforts will be rewarded with extraordinary beauty and attractiveness!
How to properly care for indoor flower Calathea at home
The capriciousness of the Calathea flower enhances the requirements for home care. And despite the fact that the "whims" of this ornamental shrub seem unrealistic for many, it is still possible to achieve the desired result. The healthy brilliance of wide colorful leaves with unique patterns and pronounced stripes is something that is worth the effort and effort for.
For many beginning amateur flower growers, the highest level of skill is considered to be the cultivation of a calathea indoor flower, since what care it should be is not understandable to everyone.
And if an amazing shrub brought from a flower shop pleases and attracts eyes, then after a couple of weeks there are many reasons for concern. Dry leaves, yellow color of their tips, wilting is not the whole list of those problems that beginners may face.
The recommendations of experienced specialists in this field, listed below, will help you figure out how to properly care for the calathea plant in your usual home environment and achieve the best results.
Watering and fertilizing calathea (with video)
- Watering: Use soft, well-purified water at room temperature. Water moderately all year round, taking care that the soil is always slightly moist. Excess moisture, which flows into the pallets, must be immediately removed so that the soil does not rot and does not form fungi. It is important to regularly spray the surface of the leaf plates with water at room temperature in order to achieve a healthy shine and rich shades.
- Top dressing: in the summer once a week in 2 in small doses. As a fertilizer, it is better to give preference to mineral complexes that are intended for deciduous household plants. For the best care for indoor shrubs calathea in the presence of flowers, it is advisable to apply dressings for flowering plants.
In the winter, to create the required level of humidity in the air, it is desirable to resort to the help of special devices - humidifiers. Periodic tilling of the soil has a positive effect on the condition and growth of the ornamental shrub, which is enriched with vital oxygen for the rhizome.
Implementation of these recommendations will help to avoid unpleasant nuances during the cultivation of such a capricious and demanding green "pet."
For a more detailed description of the basic principles of care for Calathea, watch the video, where experienced growers will demonstrate all the most important details:
Why do the tips of the leaves turn yellow and dry in Calathea, what to do in this case
From the description of the species of calathea, the fact that they are attractive and whimsical to the living conditions remains undeniable. And as soon as the slightest “requirement” is not fulfilled, the plant makes it known in the form of diseases. That is why newcomers to floriculture often get in touch with problem situations when the calathean tips of the leaves begin to turn yellow and dry. But in order to eliminate such an unpleasant "symptom" of the disease, it is necessary to deal with its causes.
Leaf plates of this ornamental plant may acquire a yellowish tint at its different levels. If the lower leaves begin to turn yellow, then there is no cause for concern, since this indicates the passage of the usual processes of natural rejuvenation. However, if the yellow color acquires most of the deciduous crown of the shrub, then it is necessary to deal with the main prerequisites of such an unsafe phenomenon.
The majority of professional gardeners, when asked why the leaves of the house calathe are turning yellow, give an explanation for the following reasons:
- Irrigation improperly performed: excess or lack of moisture.
- Poor quality irrigation water was used: untreated, chlorinated or cold.
- Insufficient air humidity.
- Overdo it with fertilizers.
- Cold temperature conditions.
And if it is established that it led to a situation where the leaves of the room calathe began to turn yellow, then the question of what to do will disappear by itself. After all, the elimination of the causes of the disease - this is the recipe for its treatment! Thus, by normalizing the volume and composition of the liquid during irrigation, the unpleasant “unhealthy leaf” syndrome can be avoided. Creating the necessary stable air temperature and its humidity is an important step towards a healthy shine of the deciduous crown of an exquisite ornamental shrub at home.
Why do calathean leaves curl and dry around the edges
A widespread disease for Calathean leaves is twisting. The reason for this disease lies mainly in the atmosphere:
- Low air humidity.
- Changeable temperature with a predominance of coolness.
- The presence of drafts in the habitat of home flower.
After examining the conditions in which the plant grows in the house, it is easy to understand why the leaves of the calathea begin to curl. And this is more than enough to determine in which steps the solution and the exit from this situation are hidden.
Demanding to the living conditions at the capricious green "beauty" significant, but certainly feasible. And as soon as the basic rules of care are violated, this can be immediately determined, since the thin tips of the elegant leaves of the calathea dry. In this case, to eliminate such a consequence, it is worth understanding the root causes.
If the drying out edges are dominated by yellowness, the plant is located on the sunny side of the room, and the direct rays burn its foliage.
In the case when the leaves of calathea gradually dry around the edges, with the appearance of dark spots, it is worth reducing the amount of spraying or revise the temperature and composition of the water used for this purpose.
The advice of experienced flower growers on how to react and what to do when the leaves of a calathea are dry is to study the place where the plant lives: light, temperature and its drops, drafts. The second course of action is monitoring the irrigation regime of both soil and leaf cover. And if in the described conditions there are no deviations from the "norm", then the case may consist in mineral fertilizers and possible parasites.
Pests causing leaf diseases in Calathea
Among the main pests that cause disease in Calathea, there are:
- False Shield
- Red spider mite.
A more detailed description of the damage caused by these insects is given below.
Red spider mite - insidious parasite, which is very dangerous for many indoor plants with insufficient air humidity. The main sign of his appearance is a thin spider web, with which he “envelops” the graceful inflorescences of an ornamental shrub. In addition, a lot of small white spots appear, and the edges of the leaves at Calathei gradually dry. If time does not get rid of such a pest, the houseplant can completely wither.
Shatter-pan - a parasite that feeds on the flower sap of a flower, as a result of which the leaf plates wither, dry when the characteristic brown spots appear. Determining the presence of such pests is not difficult, since its wax plaques are very visible on the surface of bright green leaf plates.
TRIPS appear when watering too much, and their presence produces white spots on the surface of the leaves, which subsequently increase, dry and turn into holes.
Therefore, to the question of why the tips of the leaves curl and dry in a beautiful calathea, the answer may lie in the presence of harmful insects.
To combat such parasites experienced growers advise to learn the main points.
- At firstThe main task in the treatment is to isolate the lesion "focus" in time, since all insects multiply and spread with great speed.
- Secondly, high humidity is a condition in which pests die, so this step is just as important as the subsequent spraying.
- Thirdly, it is possible to eliminate the frayer shield and thrips with the use of an insecticidal preparation, but to improve the effectiveness of such a procedure, it is worthwhile to first treat the affected leaves with a concentrated soap solution.
- FourthlyThe most difficult task is to eliminate the red spider mite with a single procedure that easily adapts to most chemicals.
Often, Calatheu affects, apart from pests, the fungal disease Rhizoctoniosis, which is caused by excessive moisture in the soil. That it leads to decay of the rhizome and creates favorable conditions for the development of rhizoctoniosis. The recipe for treating such a fungus is the use of fungicides as spraying agents.
A beautiful and healthy ornamental shrub of Calathea requires compliance with all the conditions of its normal life activity. In this case, as a token of gratitude, he will please his hosts with beautiful broad-leaved crowns with a motley brilliant coloring and amazing flowering.
Transplanting home care for calathea: how to transplant a flower
A necessary requirement for home care for calats is its transplant, which should be carried out immediately after purchase or upon reaching it of a certain age and size. Periodic transplantation is performed if necessary in the spring.
Only the acquired plant should not be transplanted immediately; it is necessary to allow several days to adapt to the new conditions of life. Initially, growers recommend monitoring the condition of the flower, checking for the presence of parasites, “pampering” with a warm shower, and then performing the whole procedure of transplanting an elegant calathea in familiar home conditions.
Professionals recommend replanting in a clear sequence.
To begin to pick up the pot, which should be wide and shallow, in order to avoid the accumulation of excessive moisture. The base layer in the transfer tank - drainage of expanded clay, which will prevent unwanted waterlogging of the soil. The width of the expanded clay layer is determined by calculating the height of the pot and the size of the rhizome, since the distance between the roots of the plant and the drainage should be at least 2, see
Substrate for maranths and azaleas will be suitable as a primer, but before use it must be carefully reviewed for the presence of parasites. For prevention, it is desirable to pre-sanitize the soil with special solutions and preparations in order to avoid undesirable consequences.
The transplanted plant should be cleaned of excess ground on rhizomes, straighten the roots and carefully placed in the prepared soil. You should not ram the ground around the “seedling”, let the roots independently adapt to the new “place of residence” and have access to oxygen.
To maintain moderate soil moisture, do not overdo the irrigation and the first irrigation procedure is carried out 2-3 a day after transplantation.
During the incubation period, special attention should be paid to loosening the soil and lightly spraying from a small dispersion sprayer so that the moisture barely touches the leafy plates in the form of a cloud. Spraying a solution of zircon can affect the condition of a newly transplanted flower.
Such a detailed procedure will help even beginners to understand how to properly transplant calathea and achieve optimal results in floriculture.
Calathea reproduction by cuttings and leaves
An important step in the life of any home plant is its reproduction. It is this process that makes it possible to breed green “pets” and create unsurpassed greenhouses and room flower gardens.
Flower growers use several types of calathea reproduction under normal household conditions: by dividing large plants in September or by cuttings in the top when the earth warms to 20 ° C. Each of the possible methods has its own characteristics, nuances and advantages.
According to many experts in this field, the most effective method involves reproduction by dividing the adult shrub. In such a procedure is important to take into account the important points and features of the procedure.
A flower can be properly separated only during transplantation, when the structure of the rhizome and leaves is clearly visible. The temperature regime during transplantation should not be lower than + 20 ... + 22 ° С.
The selected pot for the “young” process should correspond to its size, not exceeding the diameter of 7-9, see. The substrate must include three components: sand, leaf soil and peat. It is necessary to place such a shoot in a warm place with the desired level of air humidity.
However, it is worth remembering about the capriciousness of this plant and you should not expect rapid rooting.
Another way of breeding house calathea is by using sheets, that is, cutting. The sequence of this process consists of clearly aligned steps.
- At first, a suitable stalk can be an aboveground process with several healthy leaves.
- SecondlyCarefully separated stalk is planted in a previously prepared moist soil and covered with foil.
- Thirdly, the duration of such an artificially created "greenhouse" depends on how quickly the sprout takes root.
- Fourthly, the stalk with regrown roots is transplanted into a small pot and enable it to get stronger, after which it is necessary to repeat the transplant into a large container.
Such a procedure can only be done by professionals who know exactly all the features of grafting and can create the necessary greenhouse effect for young shoots.
How Calathea Seeds Propagate
For those who want to comprehensively study the question of how room Calathea reproduces, it is worth remembering about another alternative method - with the help of seeds. In life, it is used very rarely, because along with considerable efforts to get the expected result, not every experienced florist succeeds. The technology of this method of reproduction covers several simple procedures.
Prepare the soil thoroughly by mixing leafy soil with sand in proportion 2: 1. Plant the seeds in a moistened substrate. It is important to observe the temperature regime - 22-24 ° C is heat and humidity of air not less than 80%.
Densely sprouted sprouts seedlings, giving them the opportunity to grow and grow strong.
Young rooted sprouts should be planted in pots with a diameter of no more than 7 cm and carefully maintained until they reach a more “mature” state, after which the transplant procedure is repeated.
Such a breeding process can take more than six months, so many initially cast aside the possibility of its use in practice.
To achieve the desired results in the cultivation, reproduction and transplantation of calathea is not so simple, but all efforts and efforts will be rewarded by the refinement, refinement and extraordinary beauty of the ornamental shrub. Such a miracle of nature can create a cozy atmosphere in any room with hints of tropical exotic.