Gloxinia (Sinningia) - this is a tuberous indoor flower, which got its name on behalf of the famous botanist and doctor Alsass B. P. Gloksin. The second name of the plant is Sinningia (Sinningia) - given in honor of the gardener working at the University of Boston - V. Sinning, who was engaged in the selection of new varieties.
Family: Gesneriaceae (Gesneriae).
Homeland: Brazil. Under natural conditions, it grows in central and South American deciduous forests, on Mexican, Brazilian, Peruvian rocks, near rivers.
On sale there are only hybrid forms. When buying should pay attention to the number of flower buds.
Types and hybrid varieties of gloxinia: photos, names and descriptions
Under natural conditions, up to 25 types of gloxinia flowers grow, but only two of them are cultivated by gardeners - gloxinia and gloxinia royal.
Distinctive features of Gloxinia are the absence of a pronounced stem, as well as wide oval leaves located on not very long petioles, painted in bright green color. On their surface there is a thick, of minor length pubescence, well-viewed relief "patterns" of the veins. Flowers plants tubular, wide, looking up. In appearance they resemble bells.
They are painted in shades of white, cyan, pink, purple, magenta, are terry and non-double.
Various variations of the gloxinia color of this species are presented in the photo - look and appreciate their unsurpassed tenderness and charm.
Representatives of the Royal Gloxinia, unlike the previous species, have thickened stems that rise on 10-15, see. Each stem contains 4-6 pairs of leaves, which, like the beautiful Gloxinia, have the shape of wide ovals, a rich green shade and a velvety surface.
Flowers of wild plants resemble slightly drooping bells, have an exclusively purple color. In hybrid forms, bred by breeders, flowers have different shapes and shades. The maximum length of the peduncle may be about 20 cm.
Representatives of the gloxinia flower species with the royal name can be seen in the photo below:
It was from the plants described above by the two species that the breeders obtained the modern varietal variety of these delicate flowers. Work on the breeding of new hybrids does not stop today.
In addition to scientists, amateur gardeners are also working on creating exclusive forms of gloxinia. Hybrid varieties are usually classified as follows:
- By size: tall (over 30 cm), medium strong (approximately 30 cm), undersized (less than 30 cm).
- By type of color: with uniform monochromatic coloring, with chintz color (petals are littered with contrasting spots of the same size), with tiger coloring (petals in the central part are covered with dots, have a bright framing on the rim).
- By the texture of the petals: terry, non-terry (simple).
The description of varieties of Gloxinia hybrid species, their names and photos are presented to your attention below - check out the information provided and select the most successful specimens for your home greenhouse:
Josephine - This is the name of a hybrid gloxinia variety, which is incredibly popular among amateur gardeners and professionals. The color of the plant is not double. Gramophone flowers are large, painted in red and white, with slightly corrugated petals along the edges. The color of the variety is always plentiful - on one bush at the same time about 20 of incredible beauty of buds is simultaneously blooming.
Yesenia - Dutch hybrid, which is cultivated on a massive scale in many countries around the world. Bushes are medium tall and large, reach a height of 30 cm and more. Outlets are formed on leaves of short stalks. Above them are flower stalks.
The description of the flowers of this variety Gloxinia following: in form they are similar to roses, terry, painted in crimson and purple tones. When they open fully, a pink or white border appears at the edge of each petal.
Hollywood - a hybrid of gloxinia, the visiting card of which are velvet flowers with the thinnest petals. They have a violet color of a dark or light shade. The neck of a tubular flower is deep and regardless of the tonality of the petals is always lemon-colored and dotted with purple dots. Hollywood plant blooms very lush and plentiful. The color stands proudly above the rosette of bright green leaves.
Learn the specifics of this variety of gloxinia using a photo and make sure that it is highly decorative.
Kaiser Wilhelm - This is a variety of non-terry flowers of rich purple hue, in which the core is light, dotted with dark spot, and the edges of the petals are decorated with white framing. Peduncles rise above the outlet of velvet foliage, not very dense in structure. When the bud finally blossoms, it has a wavy appearance. If the plant to organize the right care, then it will please its owner violent flowering.
As seen in the photo, gloxinia varieties called Kaiser Wilhelm slightly changes its color under bright lighting - the purple color becomes less saturated and deep.
Prince Albert - a hybrid, like the previous one, having simple non-double flowers. But despite this, they look incredibly impressive, it is no wonder the plant received the name of one of the representatives of the royal dynasty. The flowers are tubular, have deep necks and are painted a thick purple-black shade along the entire length. Only in the center of the neck there is a light yellow spot dotted with purple patches.
Petals have wavy edges. Peduncles rise above the rosette of leaves, the diameter of which is about 25 cm.
After reviewing the description of the Prince Albert gloxinia variety, look at the photo in order to study in detail the specifics of the plant and its unique color.
Cleopatra - It is a representative of the hybrid varieties whose terry flowers have spectacular calico colors. The petals at their edges are corrugated, large in size, painted white, and dotted with very thick peas — purple and purple. The neck has a slightly pink shade, decorated with purple-crimson spot.
Flower stalks are not long, leaves are large. If the care of indoor ornamental plant - Clexopra gloxinia is correct, then it pleases the eye with abundant bouquet blooms.
Anfisa - hybrid variety related to tigrins. Flowers are a true masterpiece of breeding work. They have a pinkish tint, each petal has a berry-red-toned edge. Both the petals and the neck are abundantly dotted with spots of various sizes. Peduncles short, rosette low, has a small volume.
The variety of hybrids created by breeders is not limited to those described above. Among the popular names of varieties of gloxinia, derived from the species considered at the outset, include:
Blanche de Meru
And many others. These hybrids of gloxinia delight the gardeners with simple and double flowers of red, white, various shades of pink and purple flowers, as well as two-color combinations.
Cultivation and reproduction of gloxinia at home: planting seeds
To propagate Gloxinia, you can use these methods:
- Scions on tubers.
- Cuttings of leaves.
- The division of tubers.
Planting Gloxinia flower seeds at home is almost not carried out, because to grow a bush from them is quite difficult. And the appearance of the plant can change significantly. Nevertheless, this technology is used by breeders for breeding new varieties. Seeds need to be sown in November - February. Substrate need to prepare the following:
- Leafy earth.
- Sand river.
All components must be taken in the same volume and put together. Gloxinia requires certain conditions to be grown from seeds. So, boxes for sowing should be low. After planting seed, they need to be put in a place where there is an abundance of sunlight. It is necessary to carry out continuous irrigation of the substrate using warm water.
After about 14 days, the first shoots will appear. As soon as the first pair of sheets appears on them, they should be dived at intervals of 2 cm from each other. After the appearance of the third pair of leaves, the shoots need to be dived at a distance of 5. See for the third time, the saplings dive when they are strong enough. The 10 distance is maintained; see Gloxinia in the case of seed multiplication at home, if you ensure proper care of it, it will please you with color after 7 months.
Often, the tubers of the flower overgrown with many side shoots (shoots). They are new copies of gloxinia, so far it has a root system. These processes are used for reproduction.
To carry out the procedure should be as follows: you need to leave the 1-3 escape (cut the rest carefully), let them grow a little. Then it is necessary to cut them from the tuber, using a well-sharpened knife, place it in the water and leave it until the roots appear on the shoots. After that, you can carry out the landing in the ground. Gloxinia obtained from the side shoots of tubers will give color in the current season.
How else to propagate gloxinia to grow a flower at home: planting leaves
Another popular and productive method of breeding Gloxinia - leaf cuttings. It is necessary to cut off the young leaf from the plant that is flowering, capturing a part of the cutting (1 cm will be enough). Planting of the separated gloxinium leaves is carried out in a substrate consisting of peat (1 / 2 parts) and river sand (1 part). After that, make a cover for the cutting, using a glass jar.
Once a day, you need to organize a sapling airing for 15-20 minutes. After a cut of 17-20 days, small tubers will appear. Then you can transplant plants into small pots. Before you breed Gloxinia leaf at home, you need to consider: the first color will appear within a year.
If we use the method of dividing the tubers for reproduction, then we need to take large specimens, which had time to grow well. They need to be cut with a well-sharpened knife into as many parts as there are processes on them - so that there is one process on each part. All cuts must be treated with activated charcoal, previously crushed. Each part of a tuber with a sprout should be planted in a small pot filled with a wet substrate.
Watering needs to start after the 2-3 of the day. The plant begins to bloom in the same way as if it was grown from gloxinia from leaf cuttings - during the current year.
How to transplant houseplant Gloxinia in a large pot
Before you transplant gloxinia, which grows at home, you need to wait for the end of winter or early spring (February - March). Carry out the procedure should be annually, even before the growing season.
In order to transplant, you do not need to take a large pot - a medium-sized small pot will be sufficient, the width of which does not exceed 15 cm. Ideally, the size of the container on 2-3 cm should exceed the size of the tuber. If you ignore these recommendations, you can face a situation where the tuber begins to grow excessively, and the plant never blooms.
First of all, it is necessary to remove the tuber from the pot, carefully inspect, carefully remove a clod of earth, cut off the old roots, rotted places. Process cuts with crushed coal.
Next, you need to leave it for half an hour in an aqueous solution of the fungicide (among them “Maxim”, “Fitosporin”, “Fundazol”) or a dark pink solution of potassium permanganate. This will help avoid the development of rot and other plant diseases.
Then leave the tuber to dry for one day.
How to plant gloxinia and proper flower care after planting
On the question of how plant the flower correctly gloxinia, the answer is: you need to start with laying the drainage on the bottom of the pot (in which, by the way, there must be holes). This layer is designed to provide the plant with protection against stagnant liquid during watering and create a barrier against the development of rot. To create a drainage system fit:
- Expanded clay.
- Clay shards.
Substrate: flower soil mix. You can use a ready-made substrate intended for planting violets. If you want to cook the soil with your own hands, then you need to combine:
- One piece of sheet soil.
- Two parts of turf soil.
- One part of the river sand.
- Two parts of peat.
- One part of the leafy humus.
It is necessary to deepen a gloxinia tuber into the substrate only on 2 / 3 lengths. The upper part of it should not be covered with earth, as there is a threat of water droplets falling on the shoots, which may result in rotting.
After planting, gloxinia flowers require some care: tuber should be covered with foil and put the pot in a place with plenty of sunlight. It is necessary to air a mini-greenhouse twice a day - every time for half an hour.
As soon as the first two leaves appear, it can be disassembled and then added to the pot in the mixture as much as necessary to completely cover the tuber.
Terms of care when growing flower Gloxinia pot at home (with video)
Each gardener, getting a gloxinia, is interested in how to care for her at home. The first thing you need to pay attention to is the nature of the lighting. The plant belongs to the category of photophilous representatives of the flora, so it is extremely important to arrange flower pots in those places where there is an abundance of light. But learn that this is not about direct sunlight - they will be disastrous for your "green pet."
Lighting should be long-lasting, bright, but at the same time diffused. If you are going to put the pot on the windowsill in a room facing south, then it is better to do it in the spring, when the rays of the sun are still quite soft.
In summer, eastern windows will be ideal for gloxinia. If it is not possible to provide a flower with such a “place of residence”, then the southern windows should be slightly shaded.
Rule No. 1 - location: light, but not direct sun.
Proper care of gloxinia grown in a pot at home is impossible without organizing a plant-friendly temperature setting. For him, detrimental temperatures. While the tuber germinates, it is necessary to maintain + 25 degrees in the room, after rooting occurs, the daytime temperature can be reduced to + 22 degrees, and the nighttime temperature - to + 18 degrees.
If the thermometer falls below this mark, then the development of the green “pet” of the greenhouse will slow down. Rule No. 2 - temperature: warm.
During intensive growth and flowering, gloxinia needs sufficiently humid air. If we neglect this condition, the plant will begin to grow more slowly, the leaves - gradually curl, and the buds - crumble unblown. Growing gloxinia flowers at home is based on maintaining the required level of air humidity by the florist himself. To this end, it is necessary to put the flowerpots with plants on trays, covered with a wet layer of expanded clay or moss. You can spray the water in the room using a spray gun. Only in this case it is necessary to act extremely carefully and spray the liquid away from the flowers.
Important! Do not wet the leaves! If water drops fall on their velvety surface, the plant will become blotchy and lose its decorative appearance. Rule No. 3 - air humidity: provide artificially high humidity.
For information on what care gloxinia requires at home, see the video:
Watering and feeding gloxinia during reproduction by cuttings and seeds
Caring for a homemade gloxinia flower includes watering. During the growing season, the soil should be moistened very abundantly. To do this, use distilled water, the temperature of which is 3 degrees above room temperature. Pour the liquid around the edge of the pot or directly into the pan. With the latter option, you should be very careful: if water accumulates in the sump in large quantities, then the flower may rot.
For the summer season, optimal watering is from 2 to 3 once a week. Between the two watering the soil should dry. If a long cloudy weather has been established, then watering should be reduced to 1-2 times in 7 days.
According to the proper agricultural cultivation, as soon as the bush fades, it is also necessary to water it less often. In winter, gloxinia is practically not necessary to be watered, it is important to ensure that the soil does not dry out.
Rule No. 4 - watering: maintain a light moisture substrate. Water soften.
For feeding you can use any blend “For flowering houseplants”, which can be purchased in specialized stores. Gloxinia should be fertilized once a week or 10 days, but there is one important nuance: that dose, which is indicated by the manufacturer of the mixture on the package, should be halved. When the flower is in a state of winter dormancy, its fertilizer is not required to tubers.
Rule No. 5 - top dressing: to continue cultivation, feed each week, except for the rest period.
How can pollinate gloxinia at home
You can purchase gloxinia seeds at a specialty store. But gardeners often encounter a situation where completely different flowers grow from seed - not the ones whose name and image is placed on the package. To avoid such disappointment, you can independently prepare the seeds of a plant for sowing. Therefore, the question of how to pollinate gloxinia is actualized.
These colors are characterized by cross or self-pollination. In the first case, the pollen from the anthers of one plant is transferred to the stigmas of the pistils of another, while in the second case the pollen enters the pistil within the same flower.
In order to avoid self-pollination, it is necessary to wait for the bud to open, on which pistil it is planned to apply pollen. After that, using the tweezers, you need to remove the stamens from it.
Before you pollinate gloxinia grown at home, you should get a clean brush. With its help, it is necessary to collect ripe pollen on one flower and transfer it to another. You need to be very careful and make sure that the pollen sticks to the stigma on the pistil.
If fertilization occurs, a seed box will appear on the peduncle. For ripening, a period from 6 to 8 weeks is required. When cracks appear on it, it must be cut to prevent spillage of seed. As soon as the gloxinia box was cut, it should be left in a dark place (preferably upside down in a glass, so that the seeds could get enough sleep) of the day on 4 before the final maturation. Ripe seeds are brown, they can be sown in a previously prepared substrate.
How to send gloxinia for winter rest
The flowering period ends in August - October. After that, you need to send gloxinia for winter rest. Before you do this, you should cut the watering frequency in half. If the plant reluctantly prepares for winter sleep and continues to bloom throughout November, you should not interfere.
But watering it all costs less often than in spring and summer time - this will provide the necessary dying off of the ground part of the flower. At this time, the flower can be fed a maximum of once. As a fertilizer, it is recommended to use a potassium agent (potassium monophosphate, for example).
As soon as yellowness and wilting appear on the leaves, watering should stop altogether. Cutting off the foliage immediately categorically contraindicated, otherwise the nutrients from it will not have time to go to the tuber, and this is extremely important for the further growth and development of the plant.
How to trim the gloxinia for the winter and remove the tubers to keep them at home
When asked how to properly trim the gloxinia for the winter, experienced gardeners answer that the ground part should be removed, leaving only a small trunk, the length of which should not exceed 1-2, see
There are two options for saving gloxinia tubers in winter:
- Leave in the pot without digging.
- Dig them up.
In the first case, the tubers should be stored in a pot in which the bush grew. The pot should be covered on top with a pallet, put in a polyethylene bag, having turned the edges without tying. The pot prepared in this way must be removed in a dark place. It is important to know how to store gloxinia tubers in the winter at home: regularly open the pot and check if the substrate is dry (if necessary, moisten it), if the shoots have appeared (if yes, then remove them.)
The second method is considered more reliable and favorable. The tuber should be removed from the substrate in which it grew, put in a cellophane bag filled with sawdust or a mixture of substrate and vermiculite (1: 1), on which there is a fixing clasp.
Before removing gloxinia tuber for storage for the winter, the package should be tightly closed and a sheet with the necessary information should be pasted on it: the name of the variety, the expected awakening period (the plant often needs 4 to 5 months to sleep). Next package should put the box and send it to the refrigerator chamber. It is necessary that the temperature indicators do not fall below + 10 degrees. Twice a month you need to check the status of tubers.
Some modern varieties should not continue to cultivate after flowering, because the tubers are too small and often die in winter.
Treatment of gloxinia whose leaves are damaged by diseases or pests
Like other indoor plants, Gloxinia is prone to disease and pest attack. The reason for this is the gardener's mistakes when creating conditions for flower growth and deviations from the rules of care discussed above.
The flower most often suffers from gray mold. A sign of this disease is gloxinia spots on the leaves brown. To get rid of the problem, you must first carry out careful, careful removal of all damaged items. If gloxinia leaves are damaged by this disease, treatment should be carried out immediately: it is recommended to treat the plant with fungicides.
A common root disease is root rot. The tubers become dark brown in color, then the stem stumbles at the very bottom and, as a result, gloxinia finally dies. The reason for the appearance of rot lies in the constant wetting of the soil or use for irrigation of cold water.
For the treatment of this disease gloxinia and such diseases as black leg, powdery mildew, late blight, you need to use "Fundazol", and for prevention - "Fitosporin". Use drugs should be in accordance with the instructions on the package.
On the flower often pests settle:
A sign of the appearance of the first is the presence of a gray layer on the leaves and stems, resembling dust (this is an accumulation of small mites), the second is the appearance of white dots on the plant, which turn into brownish-yellow spots and a thin arachnoid grid, and the third is light spotting on sheets, strokes and silver shine on their unaffected areas.
Under the influence of parasites that feed on the plant sap, a gradual deformation, twisting, drying of leaves, wilting of buds, twisting of the stem occurs.
Treatment of gloxinia for pests that provoke viral diseases should be carried out with the help of such insecticide preparations as “Phytoverm","Aktellik","Carbophos","Aktara". In the case of thrips, it is extremely important to replace the substrate.
Compliance with the described recommendations will allow you to grow a healthy plant that will delight you with a unique color.