Interior designers very often in their practice resort to using various plants as decorative elements to create coziness, liveliness and harmony of the room. Especially popular in this area is Echeveria (Echeveria) or stone rose - a flower that is often grown at home, although it is not always easy. Like any other representative of the flora, this plant requires special care, attention, has different types and varieties.
Succulent Echeveria - Home Decoration
Echeveria - undersized, ornamental succulents, belong to the family Crassulaceae (Crazy). There are more than 100 species. An interesting fact is that the flower got its name in honor of the Mexican artist, who characterized the flora of his country with the help of illustrations. The description of such a plant as Echeveria, first of all, needs to begin with the fact that it is stemless, perennial and herbaceous. Usually in height reaches no more than 20, see. In order to protect themselves from exposure to ultraviolet radiation, the plant is covered with either light fluff or a waxy bloom of gray.
Please note that the type of cover depends on the types and varieties of Echeveria - this is clearly demonstrated by the photos with the names that you can study below:
It is not for nothing that the stone rose is used for aesthetic purposes all over the world, because it really pleases the eye during flowering. First of all, a very long flower spike is thrown out, which can be more than 90 cm, and already on it are formed inflorescences from flowers of various bright shades. Inflorescences themselves can be both direct and lateral, depending on the type of plant.
Particular attention should be paid to the leaves of the Echeveria flower - they are:
- Triangular-oval shape.
- Common without
Leaves, pubescent or coated with plaque, form a rosette, which is placed on a thick stem. The color of the leaves is green or brown, depending on the species. There are also instances of blue-green, bluish, violet and even pink. Very attractive is the fact that the color may vary depending on weather conditions. That is why echeveria is a decoration for any home. Over time, the lower leaves dry and die, but this can also occur in the winter season, if the plant is warm.
Inflorescences appear on the side of the socket, depending on the species or variety in winter, spring or summer.
The flowers themselves are small, in length reach about 1 cm, acquire a bell-shaped form and color of bright color: red, orange, yellow. It is noteworthy that, depending on the species, the plant can bloom many times or once, and then dies.
Types and varieties of Echeveria: photos, names and description of plant species
It is known that the birthplace of this plant is the southern regions of the United States, Central and South America. But despite this, there is a considerable variety of stone rose species all over the world. All of them are quite unpretentious in the care and, in particular, this deserved so much popularity among designers and aesthetes. Hybrid varieties and varieties are artificially bred for decorative purposes by crossing the natural species of the flower Echeveria. So it is worth more to understand what types of plants are most popular.
In the first place in terms of prevalence in terms of decorating the rooms, you can safely put Echeverie graceful. This flower is probably most consistent with the name "stone rose" because of its external resemblance. First of all, this is facilitated by the presence of a gray-white bloom on the leaves, which are very close to each other.
Another advantage is the appearance of orange or red flowers in the summer.
Look at this photo of the Echeveria flowers in the photo below:
All of them are characterized by a thin stalk, white or very light leaves, spines on their bases, in the axils of the leaves and lateral shoots rosettes are formed, which reach up to 15 cm.
Agaveti Echeveria it is also often found, and there is nothing strange in this, because the vernal appearance of the plant is simply striking in its singularity. The first feature is the leaves of a pointed shape, the second is their symmetrical arrangement and the formation of the shape of a water lily, the third and, perhaps, the main one - the edges of the leaves are painted pink. And in the summer, pink or yellow flowers will delight the eye.
It is natural that the description of the plant with the name will not give a complete picture, and it is better to see the photo of the agave-shaped echeveria presented below:
The next view is Echeveria Lau.:
This flower also has a number of its features. Its leaves are not so closely placed and their number is less than that of other representatives. Both leaves and flowers are covered with a gray-white bloom, which gives the plant features. Flowers can reach 2 cm in diameter. In addition, this type of plant develops much slower than the others and requires much more attention.
The following species are distinguished from the pubescent types of Echeveria:
All of them are distinguished by a bright green color of leaves and their velvety coating. Only in the purple echeveria at the edges you can see redness.
Brilliant echeveria is also distinguished by an unusual appearance. Its leaves are striking in their geometric shape and color, although they reach a length of about 10 cm. Peduncles usually grow to 50 cm. They have inflorescences that can be brushes or umbrellas, you can admire them only in winter.
Particular attention should be paid to the humpback flower Echeveria, photos of the varieties of which are presented below, namely:
All of them are characterized by an unusual form of leaves and a direct stem, as well as a bright ear. At the same time, the plant blade can reach the length of 20 cm and the width of 15 cm. The main feature of these varieties of humpback flowered echeveria is the fact that the leaves are usually concave inward. Unfortunately, it is almost impossible to see the flowers of all these plants when it comes to growing them at home. By the way, the flowering process occurs in winter and autumn.
As can be seen in the photo, the color of the plant can be either gray or with a metallic sheen:
The “Pearl of Nuremberg” variety is generally distinguished by its red-brown color:
The humpback flower also includes such a popular variety of the flower Echeveria, as the “Black Prince”, the color of which is pink-gray:
Below the photo shows the different types of Echeveria and their official names:
Echeveria growing conditions: lighting and temperature
Since the natural location of the flower is MexicoAs well as the southern and central regions of the USA, where there is bright sunshine all year round, then in the summer it is best to keep the plant outdoors - take it to the balcony or to the garden. Fresh air is an important aspect of eheveria care and reproduction. Do not forget that in this case, the flower will need to be protected from rain.
It is necessary to recreate as much as possible the conditions that exist in the natural environment and which are suitable for the flower.
If we are talking about lighting, the main thing to remember is that:
- The plant is light-requiring and direct sunlight is a must.
- A little shading in the summer will also affect favorably.
- Choosing exactly where to place the flower in the apartment, give your preference to the windows that face south.
It is worth paying attention to the process of caring for eheveriya and its reproduction at home for temperature: in summer - the outside temperature, in winter 5-10 ° С; for flowering plants - above. It means that it is in the summertime that the temperature of the room air approaches those of the thermometer, as in the natural habitat of the flower, namely 27-30 ° С. In winter, you need to take care that the sockets do not become loose or stretch out.
It is for this purpose that it is recommended to create cooler temperature conditions, 8 ° C is the ideal solution. When organizing the care of eheveria at home, remember that the leaves of the plant are very sensitive to sudden temperature changes.
How to care for eheveriya: correct watering
Asking the question of how to properly care for Echeveria, you should definitely pay attention to the correct watering: water in summer a little, in winter non-flowering plants almost never water. It is worth more to understand this issue.
As for the warm season, namely, the period from May to September, then you need to irrigate the plant once a week. It should be remembered that moisture should penetrate into the 2 / 3 of all the soil in the pot, that is, only the upper part needs to be moistened.
This is due to the fact that the plant is accustomed to a dry climate. An important caveat is that it is recommended to avoid the ingress of water on the leaves themselves, as this may cause damage to their pubescence or wax deposits. Also, water can accumulate, which causes the plant to rot. Often, the echeveria is irrigated at home with the help of a pallet, i.e. water is poured into it and, thus, the flower nourishes moisture. But in this case it is worthwhile to regularly drain the remaining liquid.
Then you should smoothly reduce the frequency of watering and by the middle of November irrigate the plant approximately once a month. And during the whole winter it is allowed to moisten the flower only once or twice.
Addressing the issue of air humidity, you need to remember the following:
- She should beat low.
- No need to spray the plant.
- Sometimes you can wipe the leaves with a damp cloth or cotton wool, but do it carefully, as you can easily damage the wax coat.
If the flower is characterized by pubescent leaves, then even wiping is prohibited, because Echeveria is a succulent. This means that the plant has special tissues for water supply, and drops in summer when exposed to direct sunlight can even lead to burns.
How to grow eheveriya (with video)
The next very important issue is the proper preparation of the soil. It should be a substrate: soil for cacti or standard greenhouse-greenhouse soil mixture. It is best to choose precisely loose substrates that are poorly nourished, neutral. You can buy ready-made soil for succulents in the store, but remember that half of it should be sand.
You can also independently prepare a soil mixture for echeveria, as shown in the video:
There are several options for this. First, you can use one part of the finished store substrate, add large river sand and finely ground brick dust to it. Not be superfluous and an admixture of charcoal. It will help protect the plant from rot in the roots. The second option is to mix leaf and sod land in equal proportions with the addition of sand. You can also mix clay soil, peat and coarse sand in equal proportions.
It is possible that the sand is superior to other components in volume. It is necessary to protect the flower from stagnant water in the soil. Therefore, at the bottom of a shallow wide pot fall a small layer of sand as drainage.
The issue of feeding is also very relevant: From March to August to make weekly small doses of fertilizer for cacti. Fertilizers such as Pokon, Green world, Bio Dom, Bona Forte are noted for excellent quality.
At the same time, it is necessary to dilute them to half of the concentration indicated on the package, and add fertilizer to the water for irrigation. Remember that the plant is accustomed to a neutral, nutritionally poor soil in natural conditions. An overabundance of minerals and dressings can harm the delicate root system of the flower and appear later on its appearance.
In this matter, it is important to remember that Echeveria, especially home, is a very fragile and delicate flower, therefore, when transplanting it, you need to be especially careful and attentive. Remember the main rules: it is recommended to replant young plants annually, older ones only when necessary. It is better to do this already when the flower is experiencing a shortage of space. This is usually done about once a year in 4. The process consists of the following steps.
Select the appropriate pots, As follows: wide, shallow, ceramic. Its bottom is covered with pebbles or tiles. The substrate purchased or prepared with his own hands is filled up. Next, the plant comes from the old soil, inspected, whether there are any damaged areas that are necessarily cut off. Slices are filled with activated carbon. The flower dips into the ground, which should be well moistened.
Remember that throughout the next week additional soil moisture will not be required.
How to propagate Echeveria and how to root the plant when planting
There are three main ways you can reproduce echeveria:
- With the help of seeds.
- Rooting tops.
The first option is the most difficult and takes the most time.. The catch is that the florist himself pollinates the flowers, and then the seeds ripen on their own. The main thing is to collect them on time. To sow them, you need to choose the right soil, best sour. On its surface, the seeds are laid out and in no case are sprinkled with earth from above. When choosing a container for growing them, give your preference to a transparent container with the same lid and a high-quality drainage system. Future plants should be placed in a place where the air temperature will be at least 25-30 ° С. To propagate the echeveria flower using seeds, you will also need a fairly high humidity.
Remember: not always this option, how to grow new copies of Echeveria, gives the desired results. Most of these experiments fail. But if successful, correctly following all the recommendations and instructions, you can get a harvest from a variety of sprouts.
The next method is the propagation of an echeveria flower by a leaf. This option is basic. First you need to completely separate the sheet from the plant. In order for the new copy to begin to rot, the separated leaf must be dried in air.
Next is to take care of the preparation of the substrate and thoroughly moisten it. A sheet is laid on the surface. The main thing - that the upper side was outside. Place the container with the leaves in a room with an air temperature of at least 20 C and diffused sunlight.
All these actions are the answer to how Echeveria can be rooted. Indeed, in a few weeks after the work done, it can be observed that the sheet has taken root. After another month, the gaze is already provided with a socket. After its appearance, the plant is ready to transplant into the main soil for further development. By the way, in the summer all these processes will take place at an accelerated pace, perhaps even more than one outlet will appear.
The reproduction of the flower echeveria at home is often carried out using the outlet itself. He is considered a fallback, because not all species of plants can be propagated with the help of leaves. First you need to separate the outlet from the main plant. At the same time, do not forget to grease the cut sites with charcoal. After the separated part must be dried in air before the next stage. This will take about 12 hours. The next step is to place the socket in the soil. As it can be used either sand or prepared substrate.
The main thing is to thoroughly moisten it. The advantages of such reproduction and planting of Echeveria is that the plant can release flowers faster, and it will develop more actively.
Thus, the main rule: it is better to reproduce after flowering with side rosettes or leaf cuttings at soil temperature 20 ° C. Slices the cuttings to dry and stick into the sandy substrate.
Why do echeveria turn yellow and fall leaves: diseases and pests of a flower
Like many other plants, echeveria is attacked by pests, diseases, such as root rot, powdery mildew, phylloxera, pilashes!
Probably the most dangerous thing that can happen when caring for the Echeveria flower is root rot. The thing is that the injured plant can not be saved, it remains only to throw it away, leaving only the healthy parts, then to root them. In this case, succulent roots become soft, loose, black and smelly. The next stage is the decay of the trunk itself and the leaves. Until this happens, it is best to transplant and before that sanitize the pot, the tray and the ground itself, if possible. It is also necessary to cut off all the affected areas with a sharp knife, and cover the cut sites with activated carbon. But if you do not do it in time, then the leaves of the Echeveria turn yellow and fall, and then the whole flower dies.
A dangerous parasite is a mealybug. It got its name because of the flour-like balls or poplar fluff, which it leaves at the base of the leaves and stem. If the first signs of plant damage by this pest were noticed, then the flower urgently needs to be isolated from others. It is necessary to conduct a series of manipulations to get rid of him. You will need a cotton pad, as well as a solution of alcohol and soap. This mixture should be cleaned all areas of the plant, which are visible parasites. If this is not done in time, then at the next stage of infection in Echeveria, the leaves begin to turn yellow and the leaves fall, and the flower itself dies.
The root worm is also a threat. It penetrates the root system of the plant and sucks all the juice out of it. Symptoms of infection are as follows:
- Yellowing and puckering leaves.
- Gray-white bloom.
- Blanching the color of the plant.
In this case, different insecticides are used, as well as plant transplantation. Perfect "Aktara", "Mospilan", "Dantop", "Regent".
It is enough just to water the land with these preparations.