Araucaria: species description, cultivation and reproduction

Anyone who loves the scent of pine needles will be delighted with room firaraucaria They will decorate housing, not only for New Year's celebrations, but also on weekdays.

Araucaria (Araucaria heterophilla) Home is a kind of evergreen conifers, very similar in appearance to spruce.

Family: Araucariaceae (Araucaria). This tree is one of those coniferous crops that are grown in a pot, indoors or in a greenhouse.

Araucaria's homeland: South America, Australia. Also grows a plant in the Crimean peninsula and the Caucasus.

In nature, these are fairly tall trees with a straight trunk. Under natural conditions, they can grow to 90 m, at home - no more than 1,5 m. Only young specimens of this coniferous plant are grown in the rooms. On the trunk, up to 1,2 in height, horizontal branches are arranged in whorled tiers (whorls are groups of branches which are ring-shaped at the same height and come out of the stem).

What does araucaria house look like?

The specifics of Araucaria growth as indoor plants it is such that to reach its maximum height it will be quite a long time, so it can be grown indoors for a dozen years. The tree has hard branches with fine needle-like foliage, growing almost horizontally. At the same time, the needles of room culture are rather soft, about 2 in length; see Leaves, both in nature and in home habitats, have a soft green color. The crown has a pyramid shape.

Look and compare in the photo, how room araucaria looks and grows in a natural range:

Culture is mostly dioecious, i.e. on it grow male or female cones:

They are quite heavy, the weight of one of them is Chilean Araucaria (Araucaria araucana) is about 1,5 kg. The female fruits of the coniferous plant have a rounded, pale greenish color, with tightly fitting lobes, about 20 cm in diameter, and male ones - slightly elongated, about 15-20 long, see. They have seeds under the scales. Sometimes there are monoecious units or sex-changing with time. It should be noted that in Araucaria as such, the flowers in the direct sense of the word does not exist (as in other coniferous crops) - they do not bloom. In this case, the cone is both a fruit and an inflorescence.

Interestingly, the seed of this tree is in most cases quite edible, it can be eaten, which is successfully used by Brazilians. They are the seeds of cones stew, roast and put in pies. But the trunks of Araucaria after sawing go to the manufacture of furniture. Such wood is considered one of the best. In addition, the needles perfectly cleans the air, emitting phytoncides - the plant also performs a disinfecting function indoors.

Types of Araucaria: photo and description

To date, there are 19 plant species of Araucaria, which grow on the Australian continent, on the islands of New Guinea and Caledonia, Norfolk. Another 2 species of this culture inhabit the Americas. Many of them reach the height of 50 m, although there are growing to 60 m, and even to 90 m. Only a few of all types of Araucaria are grown in pots and greenhouses. The most interesting types of culture are:

Araucaria araucana.

Araucaria bidwillii.

Araucaria brasiliana.

Araucaria angustifolia.

Araucaria heterophylla.

Below are photos with the names of some species of Araucaria and their short description:

Araucaria variegated (room fir) Araucaria heterophilla - This is the most popular cultivated human plant of the genus Araucaria. Brought it from Norfolk Island. In the wild, it reaches 60 m in height, the room will gain height very slowly and will not grow more than 1,5 m. Thanks to its branches and foliage, the araucaria is called the “home tree”. It has a brownish flaky bark, a crown growing in the form of a pyramid, gathering from rigid branches with small greenish leaves-needles of length 2, see. On the trunk of a tree, the branches grow turbidly, densely, forming a kind of spiral. Small short (no more than 8 cm) scales appear on the young branches of the branches.

Araucaria brasiliana (Brazilian Araucaria) and Araucaria angustifolia (narrow-leaved araucaria) can become indoor plants. Despite the fact that wild specimens have a height of about 50 m, at home they will grow no more than 3 m. Thin branches are densely covered with short emerald triangular leaves. Characteristic features of these plants are "drooping", lowered to the bottom of the tips of the branches. The leaves of the tree are bright green, linear-lanceolate, no more than 5 cm long.

View of the Christmas tree Araucaria araucana (Chilean Araucaria) found in Chile and in the west of Argentina. It is a plant that grows in natural conditions up to 60 m with a trunk diameter of about 1,5 m. Crohn has the form of a wide pyramid. The lower branches lie on the ground, and eventually die off and fall away. Branches grow strictly horizontally, and quite fragmented. They are slightly "drooping" in old trees and all densely covered with hard greenish triangles, resembling a monkey's tail. Culture loves good light, high humidity, fairly moist (not marshy) and rich in nutrients. It easily tolerates droughts and small frosts. A large seed of a plant is eaten, it is tasty and nutritious.

This is only a small fraction of all known types of crops, but even they are enough to equip a beautiful greenhouse or flower garden at home provided proper care for them.

How to take care of a room tree arukaria

Before you buy a homemade spruce, you need to learn how to Araucaria need to care. It is important to create the necessary light.

Location: light on all sides, otherwise Araucaria grows crooked. To this end, also periodically turn the pot. She will approach diffused lighting and even penumbra, but the light should be bright enough. Exclude direct sunlight.

Before you start growing araucaria at home, you need to choose the conditions in which it will have to grow. They should be as close as possible to the natural habitat of the plant. At home, the culture grows in the open high in the mountains, where it is constantly cool. Therefore, it does not tolerate warm rooms, the ideal temperature is + 10 ... + 20 ° С. In winter, a little cooler.

Important! In the summer to put on the street, the plant is not afraid of nighttime temperature drops and draft. On warm rainy or foggy winter days, take the 1-2 hours to the air. It is great if there is an opportunity to grow a tree on the glassed-in balcony.

Air humidity: the higher the temperature, the higher should be the humidity. The Araucaria room decorative Christmas tree prefers humid air to the environment. When the room is too dry, the plant can shed its leaves. To increase the humidity, you can sprinkle the needles with water or even arrange sometimes a warm shower. You can arrange a pot with a tree near the aquarium, or use a pallet with wet small stones.

Care room Araucaria provides warm abundant watering. You need to use only softened water. Water for irrigation can be pre-boiled and cooled or allowed to settle. You can also use well-filtered tap water. In general, watering should be organized according to this scheme. It is necessary to irrigate quite a lot in the summer, only to maintain a moderate humidity of the substrate: that is, the cooler the room is, the less water is needed. The next time the watering is done after the soil has dried on ¼. Water should not stagnate in the pan, excess liquid from the pan is poured in minutes over 30. It is also important to spray needle foliage on summer days. In winter, the plant is watered less often, about once a day on 2-3.

Proper home care for araucaria involves the additional introduction of nutrients "For conifers" in the soil.

Top dressing: in summer - every 2 weeks; in winter - every 6 weeks to apply fertilizer. When this solution should be made weak. From the middle of spring to the middle of autumn, such events should become regular, otherwise the needles will turn pale and become thin. It is important that calcium is made to a minimum, an excess of it will lead to a slower growth of the culture.

To grow room araucaria, you can choose one of the types of substrate:

  • Flower soil mix with 1 / 3 sand or sheet humus with 1 / 3 sand and 1 / 3 loam.
  • From a mixture of turf, hardwood and peat land with sand (in proportion 1: 2: 2: 1).
  • From the combined loam, sod-leaf soil and sand (in proportion 2: 1: 0,5).
  • From turf, hardwood soil, humus, peat and sand (in equal parts) with the addition of ½ share of the earth from the needles.
  • Ready-made soil mixture “For conifers”.

It should be remembered that culture loves subacid substrate.

Reproduction araucaria at home: how to propagate the culture of cuttings

It is impossible to talk about caring for home-tree, and not to consider how to multiply araucaria at home. It is important to know that it is rather difficult and long to carry out such a manipulation on your own, it is better to use the purchase of an already ready seedling. If there is a desire to try, then you need to know that tree reproduction can occur in 2 ways:

  • Sowing seeds.
  • Rooting of half-stiff cuttings.

Reproduction with fresh seeds, Some gardeners complement the apical lateral cuttings by grafting.

Reproduction of a plant Araucaria cuttings happens a little faster than other methods. At the beginning of spring, the apical parts are cut off from a sufficiently mature plant, on 3-4 cm, from 1, the side branches whorls (you cannot cut the top off, because without it the culture will cease to grow). It is necessary to dry the cut point for 24 hours, then remove the excessive resin cover, smear with charcoal (which must be crushed first). Before planting the stalk of the Araucaria plant, the seedling is treated with a special agent to accelerate the growth of the roots. After that, you can plant a process in a special ground. Before the sapling takes root, it should be kept under a cap, airing and pouring for periods. The process can last from 2 to 5 months. All this time it is necessary to observe the temperature regime in + 24 ... + 26 ° С.

To carry out the reproduction of spruce araucaria at home using the method of sowing seed, the latter must be used just collected material. The fact is that the older he is, the worse he comes.

In each tank with a sand-peat substrate, you need to plant a few pieces of seeds to a depth of 2-3 cm, pour. Place a sphagnum moss layer on top to ensure optimum moisture. Before the appearance of the first shoots (and this may occur after 0,5-2 months, depending on the degree of freshness of the seed), it is better to keep the flowerpots in the temperature mode around + 18 ... + 20 ° С. As soon as the first bunch of needles appears on top of the sprouts, the seedlings will need to be transplanted to a permanent place. Although transplantation can be avoided if you immediately take a large enough pot.

How to transplant the overgrown Araucaria at home

When planting a seedling in a pot, it is important to remember that Araucaria does not like transplants and suffers them rather painfully. Therefore, it is best to immediately plant the plant in a spacious pot, to minimize the frequency of such events. Moreover, a small container will restrain the growth of the tree. Ideally, the transplant should occur no more frequently than once per 4 year. It is worth carrying out such a procedure only with overgrown plants. It is carried out when the root system is completely braided by a lump of substrate in the tank, where the culture grows.

Araucaria spruce is transplanted at home in March, April and in the summer months.. performing manipulations, it is necessary not to damage the rhizome. It is extremely important to leave the root neck at the previous level during transplantation. It is absolutely impossible to sprinkle it with earth. Recently purchased culture should not be in a hurry to replant, and even more so do not shake the previous soil from the roots. The fact is that Araucaria grow in mycorrhiza (symbiosis) with soil fungus, and this interaction is beneficial for both organisms.

Before you transplant the expanded Araucaria at home from one pot to another, you should take care of the drainage. A new pot should be chosen more capaciously than the previous one, if you want to accelerate the growth of the tree, and the same size, if the transplant is made by an adult unit, and you want to enjoy the culture indoors longer.

When transplanting should use one of the above compositions of the earth, while it is not necessary to overly moisturize it, and also turn or rearrange the plant.

Diseases in the care of Araucaria (with video)

Araucaria is not particularly affected by disease.

But take a look: there may be situations like the photo with a homemade araucaria when:

  • Leaves fall down (if air is too dry or ground).
  • Needles turn yellow and fall off (with increased thermal conditions and dry air).
  • The trunk is pulled out, the foliage turns pale (when there is not enough light).
  • Appears aphid, mealybug.

To eliminate such problems, it is necessary to exclude the factors provoking them, and in case of damage by pests, treat with a soap solution or special means.

If these recommendations do not fully clarify the question of interest, check out the video on caring for araucaria:

After viewing the above material, there will be no questions about how to grow your favorite culture. And let homemade spruce pleases every day!

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