Studying medicine, cosmetology, botany, it is hard not to meet the mention of such an interesting representative of the world of flora as aloe. In its leaves, stem and juice contains the whole complex of useful substances.
Outstanding doctors of antiquity wrote about him: Hippocrates, Paracelsus and Avicenna, and the famous rulers of Nefertiti and Cleopatra trusted him to preserve the royal beauty. Where other plants succumb to adverse conditions, this record holder survives. This article offers a closer look at it.
What are the types of aloe: photos, names and descriptions of indoor varieties and medicinal varieties
The name Aloe - aloe in Latin writing - presumably comes from the Greek language, formed from the merging of words meaning “giving” and “salt”, which indicates a bitter-salty taste. Transformed into Latin, it became aloe, "bitter." The original origin of the word from the Arabic alloeh is quite possible: “the substance is bitter and bright”. A similarly sounding name, Ahal, is found in the Bible, suggesting the existence of linguistic roots in Hebrew.
Aloe genus belongs to the family Liliaceae (Lily), according to the rules of traditional taxonomy, previously being separated into a family of the same name. With the advent of the classification system APG, the plant began to rank as Asphodelaceae (Asphodelovye). The clans Gasteria, Havortija and Kniphofia have the same method of growth and are his closest relatives.
Succulents are often confused with cactus, which is not surprising if we recall where its homeland is: Africa, Madagascar, Arabian Peninsula. Different types of aloe are so widely cultivated throughout the world that it is impossible to distinguish the natural range of its distribution.
Aloe - the most valuable plant. Its raw materials are rich in polysaccharides, allantoin, flavonoids, prostaglandins, phenol compounds, essential oils, choline, thiamine, cyanocobalamin, carotenes, ascorbic acid, potassium, zinc, copper, magnesium and other beneficial substances, which determine its medicinal properties.
The Plant List, a joint development of Kew, the Royal Botanical Gardens in the UK, and the Missouri Botanical Garden, includes 558 aloe species, all of which are listed in the project lists.
The photo shows types of aloe, names which are most widely known:
Nevertheless, few representatives of plant species have medical properties. Only aloe varieties derived from the species described below are considered to be medicinal.
Aloe vera, it is present, rightfully occupies the first place. It is used in gastroenterology for the treatment of gastritis, enterocolitis, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer; ophthalmology for the treatment of keratitis, blepharitis, conjunctivitis, in cases of vitreous opacities; medical cosmetology for sensitive and problem skin; in folk medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent for mucous membranes and wound healing.
It grows in the southern half of the Arabian Peninsula, in Morocco, Mauritania, Egypt, the Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Madeira Island.
Its varieties, depending on the origin, differ in leaf color (may be blue or green in color). In addition, a separate grade is often distinguished Aloe chinensiswhose leaves are covered with white round spots.
Aloe vera, known as the agave, was well studied in the middle of the twentieth century. Its leaves and condensed juice (so-called sabur) are used to make laxatives, choleretic, anti-burn agents, they improve the appetite, the secretion of digestive glands.
Distributed in South Africa: Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Swaziland.
Its subspecies known as Aloe arborescens var. natalensis, tested in laboratory conditions with 1980-x, detecting fungicidal activity and the ability to suppress the multiplication of staphylococcus, streptococcus, diphtheria and dysentery sticks.
These species of aloe have pressed a lot to its Socotrina variety, which came from the eponymous island in Yemen, but it has not lost its local significance.
The plant in the photo is a room variety of aloe flower:
Of course, no matter what types of aloe are, they all have something in common externally. This is a typical succulent plant with thick, elongated leaves, often located in the form of rosettes. Succulents are called species with special tissues to preserve the moisture they need to sustain life in a dry and hot climate. In extreme conditions, the plant simply closes the pores on the leaves, so as not to lose a single drop of precious liquid.
Flowers in different species of aloe can be yellow, white, red or orange, but will always be tubular, located on a long peduncle. Alexander Kuprin in one of his works gives a very vivid description of the aloe flower: "On a high green stem of Agriolite, lush clusters of snow-white flowers of unprecedented beauty bloomed, which produced a wonderful, indescribable scent that immediately filled the whole greenhouse."
In all species of aloe, only adult plants bloom, and, in combination with the developed leaves, which Vasily Botkin compared with protruding daggers, the spectacle is enchanting.
But not all species of aloe plant looks the same. The appearance of the flower, color and location of the leaves - those diagnostic features that allow you to distinguish different types of aloe and distinguish individual varieties from them.
For example, Aloe variegata (tiger aloe) bright transverse stripes are “drawn” on the leaves, and the leaves themselves are arranged one above the other in a tight spiral, but in the variety of desquana the shades of gray are gray and in pearl they look like bright growths.
Already mentioned agave is more like a tree, for which he received its second name, in soap - the leaves are covered with a mosaic of pale specks, Ferox has a reddish tinge, and the colored one looks like an exotic emerald marble.
Here are the photos and names of indoor species of aloe:
It is best to take root as a homemade plant aloe vera motley and tree: caring for them is the easiest.
For decorative purposes, breeders produce hybrid aloe varieties. The most popular ones are:
Black gem - rosette plant of miniature plants, under the long exposure of the sun's rays changes the bright green color of the leaves to red.
Donnie - has a motley dark green foliage with pink edging edge.
Snow flake - leaves are almost completely white, with green shading.
Blue elf - derived from aloe squat, with blue-gray leaves and orange flowers.
Pink blush - different reddish-pink edging and shading on the leaves.
Christmas Carol - known for its bright red thorns on green leaves.
The presented photos show aloe varieties in all their diversity:
How to care for aloe flower (with photo)
An alternative to spiky cactus can be a pleasant ward to the owner, but how to properly care for the aloe flower?
Endurance and simplicity - the main qualities due to which aloe does not need specific growing conditions. A native of Africa is not spoiled by humidity: it carries dry air, even in apartments with central heating.
For the same reason, it does not require abundant watering: maintain moderate soil moisture; winter less water.
Important! To avoid stagnant waterlogging, it leads to the defeat of the root system, which will become noticeable no sooner than the rot rises up the stem to the leaves, and it will be difficult to save the plant.
Growing aloe at home requires the selection of a suitable location: sunny, in the summer it is best to place outdoors in a protected place. Despite its southern origin, being a home flower, aloe does not approve of too high a temperature: indoor, in winter, coolness is necessary. The optimal conditions are 18-20 ° C, then the plant will develop rapidly.
In different countries, especially in the wild, each of the aloe species grows in the soil, somewhat different in composition, but, regardless of the variety, all of them are suitable alternative substrate: floral soil mixture with 1 \ 3 sand.
When preparing the soil on your own, you need to take into account that in nature the plant survives on dry, clay soils with a high iron content and good aeration. Botanists speak well of a mixture of sod, leaf earth, humus and coarse sand.
Slices of sod land are made on fertile plains (soil layer 7-10 cm thick), carefully controlling the absence of rotted inclusions of organic origin. Leaf ground is used as a baking powder. Only rotten leaves are permissible in it: tougher and harder elements are removed. River sand before entering into the soil mixture is well washed.
Care in growing aloe at home: feeding and transplanting from pot to pot (with video)
Caring for the plant at home, the florist provides him with additional feeding: in the summer, every 3 week brings fertilizer for cacti. In nature, the renewal of the organic and mineral composition of the soil is ensured by the rains, the influence of the wind, the vital activity of birds and animals; at home, you will have to do it yourself.
Sooner or later, the flower will need to transplant: if necessary, replant plants, on average once a year in 2-3, young plants once a year. Aloe vegetation is required when the flower starts to grow out of its pot, so it is transferred to a fifth more pot than the former.
The best time for such events is called spring and summer, when the plant will receive enough natural light, and the optimum room temperature for it is maintained naturally.
Replanting the plant, its roots can be treated with charcoal: it is a natural antiseptic and will prevent the death of the flower in case of accidental damage or infection of the root system. Place a layer of sand or perlite about 5 cm thick on the surface of the substrate - the lower part of the stem will not rot.
See the process of caring for aloe at home on the video below:
Planting and caring for aloe plants at home: a method of seed propagation
Specialists in the cultivation and care of aloe allocate three main methods of reproduction: side shoots, cuttings of shoots or seeds; they are all applicable at home.
Cultivation from seeds - the most time-consuming and laborious method of reproduction of aloe, but with its help you can get a real collection of indoor aloe species, because in many stores mixtures of different seeds are sold. Sowing is done in spring, in March-April, using small bowls and soil consisting of turf, leafy ground and sand in the proportion 2: 1: 2. Moderately watered as the seedlings dry, after the seedlings are transferred one by one into small pots.
The soil in them consists of turf and leaf earth and sand in the ratio 2: 2: 1, with the addition of charcoal or brick chips. A year later, the plant is considered an adult.
It is recommended to treat aloe seeds before planting to young flower adapt quickly to home conditions and perceived care better. This can be done in three ways: using potassium permanganate, copper sulfate or boric acid, aloe juice as a biostimulant.
A solution of potassium permanganate for seed disinfection should be weak, pinkish in color. He will protect the shoots from pathogenic bacteria. You can add a little solution to the substrate for the same purpose, but guided by this sense of proportion, since potassium permanganate is a strong oxidizer and can burn the seeds when the concentration is exceeded.
Aloe undiluted acts as a nutritious seed cocktail. It is mixed with beet or tomato juice, left for a day, after which a gauze bag filled with seeds is placed in this mixture. After a couple of hours they will be ready for planting.
Protection against parasites and fungal spores will provide a solution of boric acid or copper sulfate. Keeping seeds in solution in a quarter of an hour will provide effective disinfection, after which the seeds washed with running water are planted in the soil.
Reproduction of aloe flower cuttings, tip and leaf at home
Reproduction of aloe cuttings faster and easier, it is one of the most popular methods.
It can be used year-round, but it is preferable to transplant aloe cuttings in the spring and summer, when it is easiest to provide young people with light and heat at home. Cut the shoots need to dry one or two days, then powder powdered charcoal. He will take the residual excess moisture and disinfect the cut point. After that, the first landing is carried out - in wet sand to a depth of 1, see.
After landing in the sand, the humidity level is maintained: it should not dry out, but it should not be poured. Cover the plant is not necessary, because he needs a constant flow of fresh air. By the seventh day, when the roots are formed, the seedling is transferred to the pot, where it will grow.
For breeding aloe apex, it is carefully cut off from the plant and placed in a vessel filled with water. Transplanted when the appendix forms several roots.
For the latter method of breeding aloe leaf, the florist will have to perform a small amputation at home. The leaf is completely separated from the stem near the base and removed in the shaded time until it dries. After that, the cut is treated with charcoal and placed in a pot with a substrate at a depth of at least 3 cm - it is optimal for the early start of the rooting process.
Thus, it is very easy to plant and care for aloe vegetation, even in home greenhouse conditions. Regardless of the mode of reproduction and the variety of the flower, aloe does not impose high demands on the host.
The optimal composition of the soil, light, coolness and a balanced amount of moisture - that's all the prickly doctor needs in order to turn green and delight the grower.
Why the leaves of the indoor aloe flower turn yellow and dry
The photo shows a healthy indoor aloe flower:
However, despite all the efforts, it happens that the pet begins to wither. Let us examine the causes of possible difficulties.
It was mentioned above that for optimal development flower soil in his pot need to periodically feed fertilizer for cacti.
Excessive depletion of the substrate will inevitably affect the plant: most often it is the answer to the question of why the aloe leaves turn yellow.
Feeding is not carried out if the plant was transplanted less than three weeks ago. During the period of prolonged rains, cool and overcast weather, plants slow down their metabolism, therefore, the application of top dressing should be reduced. The optimal composition is the mineral fertilizers with a high content of potassium, calcium and phosphorus - the most important for the health of the succulent trace elements.
If the gardener misses time for transplanting, the root system becomes cramped in a pot, plant development stops, the nutrient supply in the substrate is depleted. The flower begins to "lose weight", that is, pull out the necessary resource from its own external organs - that is why the aloe leaves have dried leaves.
In this case, you need to carry out transplantation out of schedule. Do not water the plant for several days for easier removal from the pot. If the roots have grown to the sides - the new pot should be wider. If the root system goes deep, you can take a pot of smaller diameter, but high. In the new plant capacity should be free and spacious.
Another reason why aloe dries is not sufficiently abundant watering. Succulent spends moisture, not getting the necessary amount to maintain the supply of fluid in the tissues, and the leaves begin to thin.
Why does aloe still turn yellow if the soil is sufficiently fertilized and aerated?
As you know, a healthy green shade of foliage in plants is due to the presence of chlorophyll, the pigment with which the photosynthesis process is carried out. With it, the flower feeds, develops - quite simply, lives.
Photosynthesis occurs only when there is enough light for this type: if the plant is too shaded, the metabolism is disturbed, the first symptom of which is a pathological change in the color of the leaves. It is required to rearrange the flowerpot in a more sunny place, and with time pigmentation will recover.
In addition, being in an unfortunate place with limited access to light, the plant begins to reach its source, which is another reason why the leaves and stalks of aloe are drying and weakening.
The color of the spots will help the plant grower to make the correct diagnosis. Brown spots indicate a lack of moisture, as well as changes in leaf elasticity. If the spots are soft and dark - most likely, the flower struck a fungal infection, you need to treat the leaves with an antiseptic.
Black spots indicate strong pollution, you need to often wipe the plant from dust. Redness is a natural reaction to bright lighting, characteristic of agave, there is nothing to worry about.
If the leaves suddenly begin to fall off - watered the aloe with too cold water. Keep the watering can in a room temperature, ideally close to the plant pot.
If the leaves wither, turn pale and look painful - there is too much water in the ground. The mode of watering should be changed as quickly as possible, until the roots of the plant began to rot. If the plant began to turn yellow in the stem, stopped growing and collapses to the side - it has already become ill with root rot. In this case, you need to get the plant from the pot, inspect and remove all flabby and rotten roots, cut them.
Throw the soil out of the pot, wash it and sanitize it. A mixture of peat and sand is poured into the pot, where the flower is planted for rooting. Watered sparsely, using a pallet, wetting only the bottom layer of soil. Regular watering is not carried out until the ground is completely dry.
The amount of moisture is directly proportional to the temperature of the content of the flower and the amount of sunlight.
If the rot struck the stem, the bottom of the flower is completely trimmed until there is a healthy tissue. The cut is sprinkled with crushed coal, the 1-2 of the day dries out, is treated with “Kornevin” and is planted as described above.
If there are small black dots on the leaves, the plant is affected by thrips, and the dots are traces of their excrement. The diseased flower is isolated and processed by aktar according to the instructions. Repeat 4 times intermittently 7-10 days. All home plants spend prevention.
In the case when the green leaves began to dry quickly, this means that the flower fell ill with dry rot. It is incurable. For prevention, the entire home collection is periodically treated with systemic fungicides.
The use of indoor plants aloe (with photo)
Despite its healing properties, taking inside aloe juice is recommended only on prescription and under its control. Nevertheless, in gratitude for the care of aloe flower will give you a small beauty salon at home.
Allantoin restores the structure of cells, prevents depletion of moisture reserves in the skin, with the result that it looks elastic and radiant. In addition, aloe stimulates the formation of collagen, which, when applied topically, gives a natural lifting effect without the development of addiction.
The use of juice is also useful for problematic skin: it has an antiseptic, antiallergic, regenerating effect, and is capable of deep cleansing clogged pores. Unlike alcohol-based products, aloe does not dry out the skin, ensuring no overcompensation of the sebaceous glands, and also eliminates the feeling of irritation, tightness, itching and redness.
Aloe juice can be added to cleansing and toning lotions, creams for day and night care, to do face and hair masks with it.
The first-aid kit will not do without it: any household wounds and burns will heal faster and less painfully.
I came, I saw, I conquered - this is how you can describe the path traversed by a wonderful representative of the family of the Lileinas from hoary antiquity and hot islands in southern Africa to the solar window sill in a modern European room. Aloe has attracted the attention of famous medical professionals, travelers and writers, its hidden features are still being studied.
Aloe will be a worthy representative of the collection of any plant growing, needing only the most basic care. All that is needed is a friendly and unpretentious prickly tree - light, fertile soil and some water. In gratitude, the plant will decorate a room, a greenhouse or a winter garden with a wealth of its malachite shades and generously share its beneficial properties.
In conclusion - a small photo gallery, which preserves the beauty of different species and varieties of aloe: