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Adenium: types and varieties, features of cultivation

Adenium (desert rose) - An unusual plant, which in the European area is considered to be very exotic due to atypical external data. Adenium obesum - a succulent with leathery leaves grafted onto oleander shoots. Bright green leaves have an island form with rounded ends.

The leaves themselves are slightly curved and have a length from 8 to 15. See Adenium, an indoor flower, is a rather compact tree with a very fleshy trunk and a small, compared to a wild plant, growth.

The flower grows very slowly, which is why it needs patience to grow it. This plant can be distinguished by a very characteristic caudex (a large thickening in the lower part of the trunk). The bark in adenium is quite smooth to the touch, has a grayish color, which, however, can change to brownish or grayish-green, depending on the terrain conditions. Particular attention is drawn to the roots, often protruding from the ground.

Usually root weaves and thickenings take on an original form and constitute an important part of the general form of the tree, making it unique. Flowering in this plant begins after 2 - 4 years of cultivation. Most often, it takes all the 4 of the year. Before inflorescences appear on the trunk, the plant passes the stage of single appearance of rare flowers and leaves.

The color of the flowers is varied, from white-pink and purple to purple. The inflorescence, which is very atypical for such fleshy woody varieties, gives the plant a special exoticism. Adenium inflorescences cover the entire upper part of the trunk and are quite large.

The color scheme of their petals begins with a light crimson color. The base of the petals are always brighter than the tips. Each individual flower is 5 petals, turning into a small tube. Adenium blooms a few months a year. However, with the most prosperous environment, flowering can continue all year round. The description of adenium may differ depending on the type of plant, as this family is notable for its unusual diversity.

Types and varieties of adenium: photos and descriptions of some varieties

The plant belongs to the family Arosupaseae (Kutrovye).

There are about 50 varieties of adenium, with some differences in appearance and overall plant development. However, not all Adenium species are used for cultivation in home culture, and most of them remain exclusively wild plants. The following is a description of some of them.

Adenium Crispum

This plant can be distinguished by a very unusual oblong and very narrow leaves. Each leaf of this species has a wavy surface, particularly distinguished at the edges of the sheet body. Stem thickening for the most part is under the ground, which is also not quite usual for representatives of this genus.

From the photo you can see that this type of adenium has very original inflorescences, the base of which is painted in yellow-white, and the edges of the petals are in a very rich crimson color:

In the center of each petal you can see several longitudinal strips of the same color as the extreme part of the flower.

Adenium multiflora or multicolored

Among the varieties of adenium, this one is distinguished by its shape, which is more to the bush than to the tree-like plant. This feature is due to a large number of thin, very branched shoots.

Blossom this species begins with the beginning of winter and is characterized by a large number of inflorescences. Each flower has a diameter of about 5 - 7, see. The border at the petals is painted in a very bright dark crimson color, the base is white.

Adenium obesum or fat

This species is much different from most of its other brethren. The base of the trunk of this species is about 1 m wide, and is much more thickened than the previous two trees.

Branching begins at the very top of the trunk. The leaves are leathery, gray-green and quite rarely scattered on the crown. The length of each individual sheet usually has a length of no more than 10 cm.

In total, this species reaches approximately 1,5 m in height. This plant blooms preferably in summer. The inflorescences are small, each individual flower reaches 4 - 6 cm in diameter.

Adenium Mini Size

As can be seen from the photo, this variety of adenium is the best suited for growing in indoor conditions - its height is only 12 - 17 cm.

Adenium arabic

A feature of this type is the ability to grow up to 4 m in height. The species is also characterized by the largest leaves in the genus - sometimes they reach 20 cm long and 12 cm wide. True, this happens in the case of ideal climatic conditions. With a less prosperous environment, this species becomes a low shrub plant.

Most of its thickened base almost completely goes underground, and the branching starts quite low. Blooms Adenium Arab in early spring, after waking from hibernation. However, individual flowers may appear from time to time throughout the year. The color of flowers is bright pink.

Adenium Swazicum

Another type of shrub-like adenium.The photo shows that the home flower of adenium has a growth of no more than 30 cm, however, by breeding, also higher specimens are derived (up to 65 cm):

From the thickening of this plant several branches sprout, forming at their ends a broad crown. Stems can hang from the pot, as they usually grow somewhat horizontally.

The tree does not hibernate and, if properly cared for, remains evergreen. The flowers have no color transitions characteristic of adenium and are completely colored in one tone (usually light pink).

Such countries as South Arabia, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania are home to the tree. In its homeland, when developed in a natural for a tree environment, it can reach 3 m in height. At the same time, when taking care of adenium at home, it will not be possible to get a height higher than 50 - 60 cm, since it is very difficult to bring the plant to the natural conditions.

How to stimulate flowering of adenium: location and temperature

Growing and caring for adenium at home is not very laborious, but still requires some attention, since it is unusual for this plant to stay in temperate latitudes. In order for a flower to grow and develop properly, it is important to take into account such factors as plant location, watering and fertilizer, temperature of stay and many others.

It is important to rememberthat caring for adenium flower at home requires some care, since the natural development environment of this plant is quite specific. The place for the tree is better to choose a warm, with bright sunlight. In winter, perhaps less bright place.

In the summer you can set up in the open air, protected from the wind, sunny place. It is interesting that what kind of lighting a plant needs is directly dependent on the temperature of the air in the room where the flower grows. The warmer the room, the more light the tree needs, and vice versa.

The optimal illumination time for adenium is 12 hours. This is especially true of those seasons when the house turns on the heating and because of this the plant requires a lot of light. For this reason, artificial lighting may be required in winter.

However, here too there are some peculiarities - the time of daylight for this flower should not exceed 14 hours. It is also worth monitoring this in summertime, when daylight hours are 16 hours long. In this case, at the end of the day, it is better to take the pot with adenium into a darker room.

With the help of the above knowledge it is possible to stimulate the flowering of adenium, since it directly depends on the tree’s habitat. Usually, most varieties begin to bloom with maximum light and a warm room.

A positive trait of a plant such as adenium is that with proper watering it is quite unpretentious to the temperature of stay. In the native subtropical and tropical climate, the plant tolerates temperatures of 42 ° C and higher without any problems, which is caused by sufficient humidity in the air.

However, in such conditions the inflorescences wither much faster. In the summer period optimum temperature for adenium, it fluctuates around 30-35 ° C in combination with moderate humidity.

At temperatures above 38 ° C and below 16-20 °, the plant slows down or even stops growing. In winter, the optimum temperature fluctuates around 12 - 15 ° C. Such wintering conditions will help the tree to have a good rest, with the result that in summer or spring (depending on the variety), adenium will start to bloom abundantly.

Substrate for indoor flower adenium at home (with photo)

It is worth remembering that there is no unequivocal opinion on what should be the substrate for adenium. However, you can pick up some of the most popular recipes that promise healthy flower growth.

  • 1 method. This recipe was first used in Thailand. To 50% sticky clay is added a small amount of pig dung, wood compost, pieces of coconut peel. You can also add rice husks. But many growers warn that this amount of clay makes the soil airtight, which can be harmful to the plant in temperate climates.
  • Method 2. This recipe came from India and is considered the most suitable for latitudes with a temperate climate. The 50% substrate should consist of components that retain moisture well. This includes substances such as vermiculite, cattle manure, coke peat. The remaining 50% components should, on the contrary, prevent stagnant water in the pot. These are ingredients such as coal, pebbles, nutshells.

Everything else worth remembering that the effectiveness of planting and care for adenium at home depends largely on the quality of the substrate and its variations depending on climatic conditions.

Why do adenium leaves have dry tips: correct watering

The video shows that taking care of adenium at home is not such a difficult task, if you remember a few simple rules for watering and fertilizing a plant:

It is important to remember that at different times of the year this flower requires watering as two different plants.

From April to October, it is necessary to water abundantly so that the earth is always wet; from November to March, water a little, just to keep the roots dry. However, it is worth remembering that the amount of watering can vary depending on which pot the flower grows in, how much light it receives and in what environment it is.

If adenium grows in a small pot, the earthen clod dries much faster and requires more frequent hydration. Also, abundant watering require more young plants that are constantly growing and require nutrition.

Only a transplanted plant, especially if it is in a cool environment, should be watered very rarely and carefully. This is due to the fact that the root system has not yet adapted to the new substrate and has not begun proper nutrition. You can return to normal watering immediately after the flower begins to grow normally again.

For irrigation, it is best to take rainwater, or running water, letting it stand for a day or two. Very useful is water that is obtained from thawed ice or snow.

Wrong, especially insufficient watering necessarily becomes the reason why the leaves of adenium dry, which is a frequent problem when growing this plant.

As a result of transfusion or excessive drying of the substrate, the edges of the leaves may begin to die off. If you do not normalize watering, as well as temperature, the tree can die altogether.

The reasons why adenium does not bloom, turn yellow, leaves fall, and what to do

It is important to remember that in order to properly care for adenium at home, as in nature, it is important to give the plant enough nutrients. Inadequate feeding can be one of the reasons why adenium leaves turn yellow and fall, so it is imperative to make regular fertilizer.

For example, if the soil is deficient in nitrogen, the lower leaves may begin to fall, their color becomes pale green, and the plant loses its elasticity.

Sometimes it happens that the tips of the leaves dry in adenium, however, not everyone understands why this happens, simply by changing the amount of watering. In fact, this is due to the fact that the plant does not have enough potassium in the soil. Because of this, on the edges of the leaves appear a kind of burns.

When there is insufficient phosphorus in the soil, a reddish color appears on the leaves of the flower, the plant does not grow well. An insufficient amount of phosphorus is one of the answers to the question of why adenium does not bloom and what to do in such cases.

If such a problem really appeared along with damage to the lower leaves, fertilizer with low phosphorus content can be used to normalize growth and flowering. However, do not overdo it - an overabundance of phosphorus will lead to a tree growing too fast and “elongated”, as a result of which it will completely lose its shape and appearance.

During the growing season 2 of the week to add to the water for watering alternately universal fertilizer for indoor plants and fertilizer for cacti. In the summer, you can add a small amount of fertilizer with all the necessary nutrients to the water for watering once a week in 2.

In winter, adenium should be fertilized no more than once per month in 1,5. If necessary, the minimum period can be reduced to 1 month.

Why adenium sheds leaves and how to transplant a plant

Before transplanting adenium, it is very important to choose a pot of the correct size, since this directly affects the further development of the plant. It is worth remembering that the root system of this plant develops a little faster than its aboveground part. The optimum diameter of the top of the pot should be twice as wide as the main thickening of the tree trunk.

In case the further growth of the flower is desired, it can be transplanted into a pot slightly larger than the specified size. In too large a pot, the roots may start to rot, and adenium will start shedding leaves, which may make the plant less attractive and even lead to its death.

At home, adenium transplantation must be done very carefully, since it is such an intervention in the development of a plant that can lead to illness and death. If necessary, it is necessary to replant in the spring, before the beginning of the period of active growth of the tree.

You can perform this process in the summer, about a month before the onset of autumn cold. Young, still growing flowers, require an annual transplant. This is due to the development of their root system, which over time requires more space for growth. Adult specimens should be replanted no more often than once per 3 year, without changing too much. pot size.

Adeniums grow better in wide shallow ploshka - so less likely to pour the plant and it looks more attractive. After a transplant, adenium is not poured over immediately, so that the damaged roots will dry.

Too often, it is not necessary to transplant a tree for the reason that it blooms only when the roots fully envelop the earthen room.

For many who grow adenium, it is important not only flowering plants, but also the appearance of the visible part of its root system. As you know, the lower part of the tree can be formed by transplanting it into a deeper or smaller container.

If it is desirable that the root system is branched and the trunk is squat, you need to take a wide but small container and vice versa.

Pruning and crown formation in adenium after home transplantation

At home, pruning and the formation of the appearance of adenium occurs during its transplantation and the determination of the container in a special shape and size. So, it is important to remember that most varieties grow best and develop the upper bud, slowing down the growth and development of all other buds.

In some adenums, a natural branching may begin due to an 5 incident - 6 years from the beginning of their growth, which usually does not suit their owners at all.

Therefore, for the formation of adenium crown, pruning is used, which will lead to the rapid growth of many small branches, which in a short time can turn into a system of more and less thin branches. And given that the flowers of this tree are located at the ends of the branches, pruning will also lead to much more abundant flowering.

Usually, after cutting one branch, 3 new buds are formed. The minimum height for trimming a plant is 9 - 11 cm, but in general it completely depends on the preferences of the host and how he sees his tree in the future.

To give it some form during pruning, you can also raise the caudex above the ground during transplantation. Branching begins approximately after an 40 incident — 50 days after pruning.

Reproduction of adenium at home: how to grow a flower from seeds, cuttings and pollinating method

Planting and caring for adenium at home is not a simple matter and requires specialized knowledge to help grow a beautiful and healthy flower. But it is known that the reproduction of a plant, which is considered exclusively an occupation for a specialist gardener, is the most difficult. In fact, if you wish, you can perform the reproduction of adenium and at home, while spending not so much strength and energy.

There are several ways to propagate this tree:

  • Seeds.
  • Inoculation
  • Cuttings.
  • Air layering.

Adenium pollinating is also used to cross plants and produce new species of flowers, which, however, is a rather complicated process.

How to plant adenium at home when grown from seed

At home, the easiest way to grow adenium from seed, as this method requires a minimum amount of time to care for the plant. Seeds are a fairly affordable product, they are easy to find and buy on the Internet. Their germination shows very good results - usually from one planting germinates from 80 to 100% of all seeds. However, for the beginning it is worth finding out how to plant the seeds of adenium in order to achieve such a good result.

So, it is best to sow the seeds of this plant during the warm period of the year (mid-spring - early autumn), but the sprouts will grow well even if they are sown in winter. However, in the cold season, the soil with seeds will require temperature conditions and illumination as close as possible to the summer period.

Before sowing, the seeds should be left for 2-4 hours in water at room temperature. If desired, you can add synthetic growth stimulants. Some flower growers believe that a better approach is when the seeds are simply wrapped in a wet napkin at the same time.

In such conditions, they have the opportunity to breathe, which is very useful for their further development.

When adenium is propagated with the help of seeds, it is necessary to regularly monitor the temperature of the soil, since this directly affects the speed of their germination. It is believed that the optimum temperature should fluctuate around 28-33 ° С.

The minimum thermometer should never fall below 24 °. Too high or too low temperature will necessarily cause the seeds to rot and reduce the percentage of germination.

The substrate, in which the seeds are put, must pass air and moisture well. In no case it is impossible to water the seeds abundantly, - the earthy lump should be only slightly wet. Failure to comply with this condition will also lead to seed rot.

The substrate must be prepared in advance. Such components as sand, perlite and crushed charcoal in equal proportions are best suited.

When sowing, seeds are scattered on the surface of the substrate and sprinkled a little on top of the same planting mixture. After that, the container is wrapped with cling film. From time to time such a greenhouse needs to be aired. After germination of the first shoots it is necessary to ensure that they do not fall into direct sunlight and do not touch the drafts. Temperature to be kept within 26-32 ° С.

After the first leaves begin to appear, the sprouts gradually accustom to the sun. After the 2 - 3 leaf appears on each stem, adenium can be safely planted in separate pots. There is a possibility that in the first year the plant will have to be transplanted 2 - 3 times, depending on the speed of its growth.

Adenium cuttings: ways to root cuttings

Reproduction of adenium with cuttings is a much more complicated process than the usual sowing, but this method helps to maintain the purity of the desired variety, which is not always possible with seed reproduction. By cutting, it will be much faster to grow blooming adenium at home, as it will not do in the case of seed multiplication.

To get shoots for grafting Adenium, you can select a few branches during cutting plants. It is imperative that it is important to ensure that the cutting is healthy and that the plant itself during cutting has already passed into the active phase of growth. Cutting is performed with a knife with a well-sharpened blade. The ideal length of cut branches suitable for further reproduction - 10 - 15cm.

There are two ways of how you can root adenium cuttings: using special earthen mixtures, or in ordinary water. Flower growers actively use both methods, but rooting sprouts with water is a bit easier.

To do this, a freshly cut stalk is left on 10 - 15 minutes in order to stop extracting juice, soak that juice that remains on the body of the branch, and place it in a flask with water at room temperature.

It is desirable to add a little synthetic flavor to the water. When the amount of water decreases, the vessel must be replenished. It is also important to take care of the backlight. The cuttings placed in this way take root after 10 - 14 days, it takes about a month to complete this process. After this, the cuttings are transplanted into the substrate in the same way as when sowing.

Formation of adenium by pinching and how to plant a plant

Pinching adenium is used as a means of forming a more unusual plant appearance and giving the tree exotic modifications. There are two ways of such reproduction of this plant - V-shaped grafting of adeniums, Flat - grafting and flat grafting.

Their difference in what shape the hole is made in the main trunk. Before planting adenium, you need to make sure that the stock has a strong healthy trunk, and the stalk used as a graft is cut to the healthy part.

It is best to carry out this process in the summer or spring, wrapping a cut in polyethylene. This will help to get some greenhouse effect.

Why the trunk of adenium becomes soft and what to do

There are a large number of types of adenium flower diseases, the appearance of which is usually associated with an irregular environment of stay and watering. The most dangerous is the case when adenium becomes a soft stem, and very few people know what to do in such situations, and, as a result, long-term care of the plant can simply disappear.

If at the same time the lower leaves of the tree began to fall off, the matter leads to the decay of the caudex as a result of the temperature drop along with the wrong watering and lighting. You can correct the situation if you put the pot on the battery and keep watering to a minimum.

The objective cause of this disease is the maintenance of the root system and caudex of a plant in a wet soil at temperatures below 20C.

Therefore, with the onset of cold days, it is necessary to limit the watering of adenium both in frequency and amount of water.

How to properly care for adenium at home, if the plant does not bloom

On the question of why adenium does not bloom and what to do at the same time, not only the conditions of stay, but also all sorts of pests that disrupt the development of the plant can be answered. These include spider mites, pillow mills, mealybugs.

In order to get rid of the problem, the body of the plant must be cleaned with the help of special tools. If the problem of the plant is related to the appearance of a root worm in the substrate, the situation is a bit more complicated.

It is possible to learn about the problem in the case when the plant began to bloom much less often or stopped altogether releasing inflorescences, slowing its growth. To get rid of this kind of pest, it is necessary to water the substrate with a special substance poisonous to the worm, which, however, will not do any harm to the plant itself.

The list of such drugs includes Aktara, Mospilan, Dantop, Regent.

Mealybug settles on the base of the leaves of the tree. This pest is destroyed by spraying one of the following drugs at intervals of 7 days: Aktara, Talstar, Vertimek, Fitoverm, etc.

Caution! The milky juice of a desert rose is very poisonous. Wear gloves when transferring and trimming.

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