It happens that even with good care at home, orchids infect pests: most likely, they got into the ground while still in the store from infected plants. Do not rush to get rid of the flower affected by the scutes, sciarides or other insects - you can try to cure orchids by getting rid of harmful organisms. The most effective ways of dealing described in this material.
What insects harm orchids:
From shchitovok harm orchids:
Ivy Shchitovka (Aspidiotus hederae Vail%)
Brown shield (Chrysomphalus dictyospermi Morg. Ju)
Palm Shchitovka (Diaspis boisduvali Sign. J.)
Black Bromeliad Shchitovka (Gymnaspis aechineae Newst.)
Orchid Comma Shchitovka (Lepidosaphes machili Mask.)
Orchid shchitovka (Pseudoparlatoria parlatorioides Comst).
Adult pests of orchids have shields under which females lay eggs, and usually the shields of males are much smaller than the shields of females. The flaps can be of different colors (from white to black) and of the most diverse forms - rounded, busy, semi-lunar, stellate.
Mass release of larvae from eggs is observed in dry warm weather. The larvae of these pests of domestic orchids move rapidly and colonize neighboring plants, and the preference for the outer or lower side of the leaves depends on the type of insect. During the year, certain species of shield insects can develop up to three generations.
Symptoms. The initial stages of infection pass under the film scale-like leaves at the base of orchid shoots. Over time, rapidly multiplying, scale insects can cover the shoots and orchid leaves with a solid peel. Sucking juice, scale insects greatly weaken the plants.
Control measures. For the treatment of orchids affected by these pests, is sprayed with solutions from insecticidal plants. When carrying out chemical treatments for a month, weekly spraying of plants with actellic (0,2%), carborphos (0,2%), and phozalone (0,15%) is recommended.
Next, you will learn what other insects harm orchids, and how you can get rid of them.
How to treat orchids from pests of spider mites
The most common spider mites are the common spider mites (Tetranychus urticae Koch.) And the red spider mite (T. cinnabarinus Boisd.).
Different types of ticks differ somewhat from each other in their parameters and biology, however, they also have common features, being characterized by a microscopic size (0,3 — 0,4 mm long), an oval or oblong body with four pairs of legs, small translucent spherical eggs and larvae with three pairs of legs .
Each female lays from 100 to 250 eggs. The development cycle of spider mites is 10 — 28 days, depending on the species and environmental conditions. In favorable conditions, the spider mite can develop without diapause and produce 12 — 15 generations per year.
spider mite Tetranychus urticae.
Symptoms Spider mites are especially active in dry and hot climates, at optimum temperatures of 25 — 32 ° C and relative humidity of the air 35 — 55%. Outbreaks of tick development should be expected in spring and autumn. If at this time the number of the pest is not controlled, it completely populates the lower surface of the leaves and the buds of orchids.
As seen in the photo, these pests of orchids (both adult individuals and larvae) suck out the cell sap, wrapping the underside of the leaf with a thin web:
As a result, the sheet first becomes variegated, then discolored and dries. Severe damage may cause the death of the entire plant.
Control measures. The following chemical treatments are recommended: Actellic (0,2%), Karbofos (0,2 — 0,3%), Omite (0,1 — 0,2%), Tau flulyvalinate (0,5%). To get rid of these pests of orchids as quickly as possible, it is also recommended to sprinkle 1% solution of tar soap. All orchid treatments for these pests are performed 3 — 4 times in a row at intervals of 5 — 7 days.
Red flat mite (Brevipalpus obovatus Dorm.).
The body of the female is ovoid, brown-red in color with a mesh pattern on the back. Eggs are oval, red. Larvae and nymphs oblong-oval, red.
Symptoms. The optimal conditions for the mass reproduction of this pest is + 18 — 20 ° С and relative humidity of the air is about 80%. In favorable conditions, it develops without diapause. It feeds on both sides of the leaves, sucking the cell sap. The leaves will soon acquire a reddish-silver shade.
Control measures. To treat those affected by these pests. orchids at home spraying with phozalona solution (0,2%), acrex (0,08%), Apollo (0,2). A red flat mite has several periods of rest, which last for 2 — 4 days, and alternate with the same short feeding periods. Therefore, chemical treatments to combat these pests of orchids must be carried out several times in a row over a short period of time (3 — 4 days).
The following describes how to deal with pests of orchids sciarides.
How to deal with small insect pests of orchids with sciarides
Fungus mosquitoes sciarides (Sciara spj) - these are flying small insects of size 0,4 — 0,6 cm with transparent wings. The main damage to orchids is caused not by adult individuals, but by the larvae. They are white, translucent, with a black head, without legs, length 0,4 — 0,7. See the full cycle of development of these small insect pests of orchids from an egg to an adult — 30 days. With a large accumulation in the wet substrate, the larvae of fungal mosquitoes can eat the living roots of orchids, in addition, pathogenic fungi and bacteria can penetrate through these wounds into the plants.
Control measures. As a preventive measure to combat the larvae can recommend periodic drying of the substrate. The trapping of flying adults is carried out with the help of velcro or predatory plants, for example, zhiryanka (Pinguicula L.).
It has been revealed that mosquitoes willingly fly to yellow color, therefore, yellow pieces of paper or yellow plates with water, which are added with a few drops of dishwashing liquid in order to make insects stick, are used as baits.
These photos show how pest control of orchids is carried out by the sciarides:
Insects pests in the soil of orchids: kitsyak and multiply
Kivsyak non-permanent (Polydesmus inconstans Latz) has an elongated cylindrical brown or black segmented body with double trunk segments and many walking legs. Each double segment carries two pairs of legs and two pairs of ganglia. In length reach 50 mm.
These insects living in orchid ground, at danger it coagulates in a ring and emits an unpleasant turpentine smell. Leads a hidden lifestyle, hiding in the substrate. It reproduces by laying eggs, from which small, bright larvae, similar to adult individuals, emerge.
Multiply flat (Polydesmus complanatus L.) it has a gray-brown segmented body with twenty flat shields on the dorsal surface. In length reach 2,5 cm.
Symptoms. Kivsyaki and multiply - not the most dangerous pests of orchids. These pests that are found in the soil of orchids, feed, as a rule, with plant residues, but, multiplying in large numbers, are capable of causing significant damage to plants, damaging the growing tips of young roots, as well as seedlings.
Control measures. The substrate is periodically dried, the pots with the plants are shed with fosalon (0,2 — 0,3%).
Pests of slug and snail orchids: symptoms and how to get rid (with video)
Slugs and snails.
Naked slug (Umax maximus Mull.)
Net slug (Agriolimax reticulatum Mull.)
Slugs can be gray, brown or almost black in color with patterns in the form of specks and dots, or completely without a pattern on the body. The length of adults in different species from 12 to 150 mm. Females lay rather large eggs (with a diameter up to 1 mm) inside the substrate or near its surface at the base of the plants. In each clutch, you can count from 10 — 20 to 50 eggs. After about 20 days, young individuals appear from the eggs, resembling adults, but smaller in size.
Slugs feed mainly at night, and during the day they hide in secluded places. With a prolonged increase in temperature, the slugs may fall into a state of suspended animation, waiting for adverse conditions.
Symptoms. Slugs cause great harm to orchids, eating buds, flowers, peduncles, young shoots and leaves, nibbling on the roots and completely destroying seedlings. In one night, a slug can completely destroy a plant, destroying all renewal buds. Usually on the ground bites remain glistening track tracks.
Control measures. The main effective method in the fight against these pests of orchids - prevention during the care of plants. First of all, weed control, timely removal of dead plant parts, the use of clean pots, drainage, as well as the substrate and its components, free from eggs and adult slugs. The second method is mechanical protection. It is much more difficult to carry out, because slugs can penetrate into the pot not only from above, rising along its wall, but also from below, through drainage holes.
Even water is not an obstacle for slugs - they overcome a water barrier by simply creeping under the water along the bottom of the vessel. The fleecy material (for example, if the base of the peduncle is wrapped with a layer of cotton) may serve as an obstacle to the penetration of slugs for some time, but sooner or later they will be able to take this “barrier”.
In dry places, rollers from burnt lime, dry mustard, table salt, superphosphate can be an obstacle for slugs.
But orchids, as a rule, are grown in conditions of high humidity, so the rollers quickly get wet and lose their properties. In this regard, the most common and effective methods in the fight against slugs are traps and bait. The simplest trap can be made from a damp cloth or half a potato, cutting a recess in it with a convenient entrance for a slug and putting it on the rack with the cut down.
Lures are usually laid out in places with the greatest accumulation of slugs. They can be either non-poisoned (beer, kefir, rotten fruit) or poisonous (Parisian greens, metaldehyde, mezurol).
Crawling on a poisonous bait, the mollusk damages a part of its mucous membrane, its muscles become stiff, and it quickly dies. Metaldehyde wetting powder (50% by active ingredient) at a concentration of 0,5 — 2,0% spray plants and racks. When using non-poisonous baits, mollusks have to be fished manually, collecting them in a jar with a solution of detergent.
Here you can watch a video of how to deal with these pests of orchids:
The final section of the article is devoted to what pest orchids wood lice and worms.
Pest insects have got in the orchids: description and care in the home
Mokritsa ordinary (Armadillidium vulgare Latr.)
Cellulite (Porcellio scaber Latr. J.).
Crustaceans with 7 pairs of walking legs and an ovate-elongated body, reaching a length of 20 mm and covered with gray articulate plates on top. At the moment of danger the wood lice curls up in a ball, protecting a softer belly.
Leads a hidden lifestyle, eating, as a rule, plant residues. However, under optimal conditions (even moderate temperature, high relative humidity, shelters and food), woodlice can multiply in large numbers, feeding on living tissue of orchids.
Symptoms. If these insects are bred in the orchid, they severely damage the succulent parts of the plants, not only gnawing on their roots, but also eating young shoots, leaves, flower stalks and flowers. The presence of wood lice often indicates that the plant needs transplantation and reduction of irrigation, since this crustacean prefers to settle in overmoistened substrates.
Control measures. As well as slugs, woodlice are caught on baits from rotted vegetables and fruits, as well as on fermented beer.
As shown in the photo, for the treatment of orchids from these pests during mass reproduction, the phono salinization is eliminated (0,2 — 0,3%):
Earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris l.).
It harms, mainly, terrestrial orchids growing on a land substrate. Cocooned eggs lay inside the pot.
Symptoms. Directly not feeding on plant tissues, earthworms, however, cause significant harm to terrestrial orchids. Settling in pots, they actively change the structure of the substrate, which becomes dense, airtight.
It is easy to notice the presence of earthworms in the pot along the loose tubercles of the earth with a special granular structure on the surface of the substrate.
Control measures. When caring for orchids at home, to get rid of these pests, it is recommended to remove the worms from the substrates during transplantation and pre-steaming the substrates before use.