For a long history of cultivation apple trees (Malus) in private gardens invented a lot of tools that can protect the trees from all sorts of misfortunes.
But diseases and pests of apple trees still threaten fruit plantings, so you should not rely on chemical reagents alone - it is important to carry out other argromery, enhancing the immunity of plants to infection and insect infestation.
How to treat apple trees for diseases: photo and treatment of trees
Common, or European, cancer
The causative agent is a mushroom Nectria galligena. Small longitudinal cracks appear on the cortex, which open and expose the ulcer with raised edges of callus tissue. An open form of cancer in the form of deep ulcers is found on the trunks of adult apple trees; on the branches, it is more often a closed form, in which the nodules grow together.
With the mass manifestation of the disease, deep ulcers are formed on skeletal branches. In the affected wood, dark red summer sporulation pads develop.
As shown in the photographs, the leaves of apple trees affected by this disease become chlorotic, with brown spots without edging, dry up and fall prematurely:
Brown spots appear on the fruit on the side of the stem, which lead to decay of the apples.
Control measures. To treat apple trees from this disease and some pests, spray the trees before the leaves bloom with copper-containing preparations. Remove and burn severely damaged trees and individual branches, clean the ulcers and disinfect the wood 1% copper sulfate and be sure to brush over with oil paint.
The causative agent is a mushroom Sphaeropsis malorum. Depressed, reddish-brown spots appear in forks of the skeletal branches. The struck bark turns black, becomes hilly, cracks over time, dries out and exfoliates from the wood. Dark spots of black rot appear on the leaves and fruits.
Control measures. For the treatment of apple trees from this disease, the same measures are carried out as against ordinary cancer of the apple tree.
Shrinking branches, or tuberculosis
The causative agent is a mushroom Tubercularia vulgaris. Branches and young shoots with leaves suddenly darken and dry up, the leaves fall.
Pay attention to the photo - on the bark of apple trees affected by this disease numerous brick-red pads of fungal sporulation appear:
Dying off of the bark and bast of skeletal branches and trunks of young trees is observed. The disease manifests itself in both stages of the fungus, the causative agent: tuberculosis develops in young apple trees, and necrosis necrosis develops in adult trees.
Control measures. The same as against ordinary cancer of the apple tree.
See how the apple trees are treated for the diseases in these photos.
Cytosporosis, or infectious bark drying
Pathogens - fungi Cytospora schulzeh и C. carposperma. Numerous convex fruit bodies of gray color appear on the affected bark of the branches. The bark retains a red-brown color, does not exfoliate, dries slowly.
A crack often forms on the border of the parts of the drying out crust. Young trees die in the spring during bud break and flowering. The infection persists in the affected cortex.
Control measures. The treatment of this disease of apple trees is the same as in the case of the defeat of ordinary cancer.
Pathogens - fungi Monilia cinerea, M. fructigena. The first pathogen causes monilial burn of the apple tree, at which flowers, ovaries, fruit twigs and leaves turn brown and dry. The second causes fruit rot.
Rot appears at the site of damage to the codling moth, with time numerous gray sporulation pads forming in the form of concentric circles. Spores are spread by wind, rain, insects. Infected fruits dry out and turn black.
Control measures. Before treating apple trees for this disease, remove the dried fruit from the trees. In case of strong spreading, spray the 1% Bordeaux mixture or XOM using the scheme three times a day.
The causative agent is a mushroom Venturia inaegualis. Dark green, gradually turning velvety spots appear on the leaves from the upper side, the leaves turn yellow and fall prematurely. Fruits become stained and become unsuitable for consumption.
Means of struggle. Collect and remove fallen leaves.
To combat this disease of apple trees, spraying, starting from the green cone phase and, if necessary, in the summer, one of the preparations: 1% Bordeaux mixture, fast, HOM, Abiga-Peak, taking into account the waiting times for the preparations.
Brown Leaf Blotch
Pathogens - fungi Phyllosticta mali и Ph. briardi. With the defeat of the first fungus on the leaves appear large, angular, dark yellow spots, with a lighter middle and a thin brown rim. With a second lesion - the spots on the leaves are round or angular, light yellow in color, without bordering. The leaves turn yellow and fall prematurely.
Control measures. Collect and remove fallen leaves. To protect the apple trees from this disease, spray trees 1% Bordeaux mixture before flowering and immediately after it.
The causative agent is a mushroom Gymnosporangium tremelloideS. According to the description, this disease of apple trees resembles a rusty patina. On the leaves, orange-red rounded pillow five with small black dots appear on the upper side, and orange, cone-shaped aces form on the lower side, and eventually turn brown.
The fungus on the juniper Cossack winters and develops. In the spring, brown outgrowths with mucus appear in the cracks of the bark and spores replicate the leaves of the apple tree. With mass distribution disease leaves prematurely turn yellow and fall off.
Control measures. Spray 1 trees with a Bordeaux blend before flowering and immediately after it. Do not plant Cossack juniper near apple trees.
View photos of apple diseases, described above.
Frosty and sunny frost damage to apple trees
With sharp fluctuations in daily temperatures, irregularly shaped light spots appear on the bars and skeletal branches on the southern and southwestern sides of the tree. Gradually, the crust dries and cracks, frost cracks are formed.
A sharp decrease in temperature causes damage to the root system. When the roots are damaged, the trees dry out at the beginning of summer, and if the shtambs and branches are damaged, the bark dries out and peels off slowly.
Means of struggle. Clean and crack open wood with 1% copper sulfate and coat with oil paint or mixture of mullein and clay (1: 1).
Measures to combat apple trees are shown in these photos:
How to treat apple pests: spraying the care of trees
Apple color beetle (Anthonomus rotogit) - Weevil beetle brownish-brown. In early spring, beetles leave wintering grounds, crawl on branches and begin to feed on buds. During the period of extension of the buds, the females lay one egg in each bud.
The fecundity of one female from 30 to 100 eggs. A yellowish larva is born from the egg, which feeds inside the bud, where it later pupates. Affected buds turn brown and dry. Young bugs gnaw holes, come out of the bud and feed on leaves. In July, finish eating and hiding under the bark of trees.
Control measures. In the spring, before bud break, shake the beetles from the trees onto a film and destroy them. To treat apple trees from these pest trees one of the drugs: decis, Inta-Vir, spark, actellic, fufanon.
Apple tree worm
Apple tree worm (Lepidosaphes ulmi) -shallow sucking insect, in which females are covered with brownish, comma-shaped oblong shield.
As seen in the photo, the males of this pest apple-winged, elongated, red-gray color:
The eggs hibernate under the shield, in the spring after the end of flowering, small yellowish stray larvae hatch and crawl along the branches. The larvae stick to the bark, cover with a flap. By early August, females lay eggs under the shield from 40 to 100, which remain to spend the winter.
With a large number of pest small branches gradually dry up.
Control measures. Timely thin out the crown, remove the dried branches, clean the trunks of the dead layer of bark. To treat the apple trees from these pests, spray the trees after flowering when tramps appear with fufanon, aktellik, a spark, Inta-Vir.
Goose (Rhynchites bacchus) - Weevil beetle crimson-red color. The larvae are white, bent, wrinkled, with a brown head. Beetles and larvae overwinter in the soil. In early spring, beetles begin to feed on the buds, gnawing them out, and later moving on to flowers, ovaries, leaves, and shoots.
The proboscis beetle gnaws deep holes in the shoots and ovaries, damages the skin of the fruit. After the flowering of the apple trees, the female gnaws a hole in the fruit, lays an egg into it, then gnaws the peduncle, the fruit falls to the ground and rots.
The larvae feed on rotten pulp, in July they go to the soil and pupate. In early August, beetles come out and feed on young shoots and fruits until late autumn.
Control measures. To protect the apple trees from these pests, spray the trees before flowering and immediately after its completion with one of the following preparations: kinmiks, actellic, Inta-Vir, fufanon. Collect the dropas, shake the beetles on the tape and destroy.
Green apple aphid
Green Apple Aphid (Aphis pomi) - green insect. In the spring, the larvae hatch and feed on the juice of swelling buds. When blooming leaves aphid goes on the lower side of young leaves and young shoots.
Damaged leaves curl, shoots deform, turn brown and dry. Over the summer can develop up to 15 generations of aphids.
Means of struggle. To combat these pests when caring for apple trees, spray trees when budding with one of the following drugs: Kemifos, Karbofos, Fufanon. With a large number of aphids, repeat spraying with the same drugs in the summer, taking into account the waiting time for each drug.
Hawthorn (Aporia crataegi) - a large butterfly with characteristic black veins on white wings. It flies in June, lays yellowish eggs on the underside of leaves. At the beginning of July brown-gray caterpillars hatch, which skeleton leaves, leaving only the veins.
At the end of July, the caterpillars create nests of brown dried leaves, fastening them with cobwebs, weave small white cocoons inside and hibernate. In spring, when bud breaks, the overwintering caterpillars emerge from cocoons and feed on buds and young leaves.
By the end of the flowering apple, they pupate by attaching a web to the branches. Butterflies come out of the pupae in 15 days. With mass reproduction, the caterpillars completely eat the leaves, baring fruit trees.
Control measures. Cut and burn winter nests. To combat these pests of the apple trees, spray trees in late June - early July during the hatching of caterpillars from eggs with drugs karbofos, fufanon or Inta-Vir.
Codling moth (Carpocapsa pomonella) - dark gray butterfly. The massive flight of butterflies is observed through 20 days after apple blossoms. Females lay eggs on the surface of leaves and fruits.
Caterpillars are white, white and pink with a yellow-brown head, each damaging up to 4 fruits. One or two generations of the pest usually develop. With a large number of caterpillars damage up to 90% of fruits that rot and prematurely fall off.
Control measures. Spray the apple trees from these pests three weeks after flowering with one of the following preparations: karbofos, fufanon, kemifos, Inta-Vir. Use trapping belts, which are placed on trunks in June, collect carrion, in the fall, clean the trunks of the upper dead layer of bark, in which hibernating caterpillars hide.
These photos show how apple pest control is conducted: