Diseases and pests of fruit trees are the real scourge of not only country gardens, but also large nurseries, where special attention is paid to measures to combat these evils. The fact is that harmful organisms mutate from year to year, adapting to the usual drugs, it is necessary to invent new ones, but pathogens develop immunity to them over time.
Protecting fruit trees from pests and diseases - very important question. In order to use chemicals as rarely as possible, one should not let the “enemies of the garden” easily overwinter. And they winter in different places: pathogens - on plant debris and on the affected parts of the plant; insects - more often in the soil, but some in the cracks of the bark.
How the fruit trees are treated for pests and diseases is described in detail in this article.
Pest control and diseases of fruit trees: spraying and other agricultural practices
In order to effectively protect fruit trees from pests and diseases in the fall or early spring, the garden should be cleared of old foliage, and trees and shrubs should be free from all diseased branches. Pristvolnye circles in the autumn it is better to dig or well pryglit, so that the pests are on the surface of the soil and die during the winter.
There are other techniques to protect fruit trees from insect pests. In springtime, when they climb up the plant, and in July, when larvae pupation occurs, they put traps on the tree trunks.
During the summer, you need to collect all the carrion and remove the spider nests, in which caterpillars develop. On currants remove prematurely colored berries and brushes woven with cobwebs.
To reduce the risk of fungal disease of fruit trees, you need to remember: plants that are not damaged by pests and receive proper nutrition are less frequently affected.
Strongly affected plants after adverse winters. Especially dangerous is the occurrence of frosts and sunburn. The latter occur at the end of winter - early spring, when the nights are still cold, and the daytime sun heats the bark of the trees to high positive temperatures.
As a result, bark breaks occur. You can avoid this. The following agricultural practice is used for this: since autumn, the trunks and thick branches are whitened with a special water-based paint. It is better not to use whitewashing, it will be washed off by autumn rains, and there will be no good.
Spraying of fruit trees from pests and diseases with chemical preparations should be stopped at least 25 days before harvesting.
However, no matter how hard you try, it is impossible to completely abandon chemical treatments. Of course, at the first occurrence of pests, you can use herbal extracts, but if there are many pests, the use of appropriate pesticides is inevitable. The greatest effect in this case can be achieved while respecting the optimal treatment time when the pests are most vulnerable.
With photos, descriptions and measures to protect fruit trees from shrubs, you can find in this material.
Major pests of fruit trees and control measures
The main pests of fruit trees include aphids, squirrels, apple blossom beetles and codling moths.
aphid - This is the most common pest of fruit trees. These are small insects living in colonies on the tips of the shoots. They pierce the integumentary tissues of the plant and suck the juice. As a result, the leaves curl, change color, fall prematurely, and the shoots acquire an ugly shape. A black fungus is colonized on sticky secretions by aphids. Aphids are especially harmful to young, strongly growing trees.
Treatments of fruit trees from these pests are carried out during the bud break with Fufanon, Int-vir, Decis and other preparations. During the entire growing season when pests appear, the treatment is repeated.
Apple Blossomor spring weevils make holes in flower buds and lay eggs there. As a result, the flowers do not bloom, and the petals dry out and remain in the form of a brown cap. With a large number of these insects, all flowers can be damaged.
To protect fruit trees from these pests, the treatment is carried out in the spring during the blooming of flower buds.
Use drugs: Spark, Double Effect, Malathion. In the same period in the morning you can shake the beetles from the tree onto the plastic film spread under the crown, and then destroy them.
Mednyatsya - small jumping insect. Adult individuals and larvae feed on the sap of the plants, and at the same time they damage the buds, young leaves, and flower stalks. There is a fall of the ovary, the leaves are shallow, the general condition of the plant is deteriorating.
As shown in the photo, the presence of these pests of fruit trees can be determined by the presence of droplets of the so-called “honeydew” on the plant during the budding period:
Spraying of plants is best carried out in the evening in calm weather, as plants can get burned at high daytime temperatures.
To combat sucker, they are treated during the swelling of buds with Fufanon preparations.
Apple moth - the most dangerous pest. Can destroy up to 90% yield. The cod's moth larva penetrates the fruit, gnaws out the seed chamber and eats away the seeds, then it can also damage the neighboring fruits. Damaged fruits cease to develop, fall prematurely, often affected by fruit rot.
It is possible to reduce the number of pests by regularly removing the dropas from the garden and applying burlap belts on the trunks of fruit trees from mid-July to mid-August.
For spraying fruit trees from these pests apply drugs Fas, Decis. But chemical treatments are not always effective, since the larvae of the moth within the fruit are of low vulnerability.
Caterpillars On fruit trees, caterpillars of various butterflies eat leaves and tops of shoots. Some of them live in colonies, weaving their nests out of cobwebs (ermine moths), others make shelters by folding leaves into tubes (a caterpillar of a moth), and some simply mask themselves (sawflies).
To combat the caterpillars, treatment is carried out in the spring during bud break, after flowering, and repeated at intervals of 12-15 days. Apply Karbofos, Inta-Vir and biological preparations - Bitoxibacilin and Lipidocid.
Next, you will learn how to treat fruit trees from scab and rot diseases.
How to treat fruit trees from scab and rot diseases
destroyed - The most common disease. Caused by a microscopic parasitic fungus that affects the tissues of leaves, fruits and green shoots. Old trees and thickened plantings suffer the most. In wet years, the first symptoms appear in spring on the blooming leaves.
As shown in the photo, on the leaves of fruit trees affected by this disease, first appear bright spots, which soon turn brown, they form a brown-olive bloom of sporulation:
Affected leaves dry out. The fruits form clear black spots with a bright rim.
Infection of young leaves occurs in spring. During the summer, the pathogen develops in several generations. Overwintering pathogen scab on fallen leaves.
To combat this disease of fruit trees in the wintering stage of the pathogen, it is necessary to remove fallen leaves. In the fall, during the leaf fall or immediately after it, the trees and the soil beneath them are treated with an 5% urea solution. In the spring, during the blooming of the kidneys, a “blue” spraying of 3-4% solution of Bordeaux liquid is carried out.
It is possible to carry out a later treatment - in the phase of the nomination of the buds with the drug Raek. Immediately after flowering, the treatment is repeated. You can use 1% Bordeaux blend, XOM, Abiga-Peak, and other copper-containing drugs.
Further processing carried out throughout the season with an interval of 2-3 week. The most reliable and economical way to control scab is the use of recommended immune varieties.
It is ubiquitous. Infection persists in affected mummified fruits. In the spring on these fruits sporulation occurs. The resulting spores are a source of infection of new fruits. If the affected fruits remain on the tree, then an infection of the fruit branches occurs.
Infection of the fruit begins with the appearance of a brown spot, usually in places of damage. Later, the stain covers most of the fruit, the flesh becomes unsuitable for food. Gray spore pads are formed on the surface of the spots.
In addition to the apple and fruit pears rot affects henomeles.
For the treatment of fruit trees from diseases, the same preparations are used as against scab. It is important not to leave infected fruit in the garden.
The following section of the article describes how to spray fruit trees from powdery mildew, European cancer and other diseases.
How to spray fruit trees from other diseases
It affects trees and shrubs. The infection persists in the affected parts of the plant and in fallen leaves. The first signs may appear in spring on young leaves and buds. A white bloom appears, which darkens later. The affected shoots become ugly, the fruits are not formed. If already established fetuses have been infected, they become unusable.
Treatments are carried out in the same time as against scab, or when the first symptoms appear. For the treatment of this disease of fruit trees, sulfur-based preparations are used, as well as the systemic drug Raek. The affected parts of the plants are cut with a supply of healthy tissue and burned. Use resistant varieties.
European apple crab - fungal wood disease
At the same time, a dark depressed spot forms, which cracks with time, and a thickening appears. Cracks can reach the middle of the trunk.
The affected trees die in a few years. In summer, sporulation occurs on damaged wood. Spores affect adjacent trees, leaves, fruits. As a result, the leaves turn yellow, they form brown spots. The fruits rot from the stalk. The disease can affect different garden crops.
Sick plants need to be uprooted and burned. Affected branches cut out with a stock of healthy wood. Sections are disinfected with 1% copper sulfate solution. In the early spring, prophylactic treatment with copper preparations is carried out.
Black Cancer - mushroom disease
Usually develops in the forks of skeletal branches. Red-brown spots appear, which eventually turn black, become covered with small tubercles of fungal fruit formations. The bark gradually dries and flakes off. With the defeat of the trunks trees die through 1-2 year. The infection persists in plant debris and in the affected cortex.
Protective measures against black cancer are the same as in the case of European cancer.
Shrinking branches (non-sodium necrosis)
It affects almost all tree and shrub species. Manifested in the drying of the branches and young shoots. Leaves fall. The bark dries out, covered with cushions of sporulation of a brick-colored mushroom. The infection persists in the affected cortex.
To protect fruit trees from this disease, the same measures are taken as in the case of European cancer.
Shrinking bark (cytosporosis)
The disease can affect almost all trees and shrubs. In the affected parts of the plant, the bark gradually dries out without changing the color; small gray pads of sporulation are formed on it. A crack appears on the border of the dead and living bark. Infected young trees die in the spring when bud breaks.
To combat pests of the garden has long been used folk remedies. Water infusions, decoctions of insecticidal and phytoncidal plants kill and repel caterpillars, aphids, spider mites, etc.
The protective measures against bark drying are the same as in the case of European cancer.
These photos show how to treat diseases of fruit trees: