Like any other fruit trees, pears (Pirns) need treatment from insect pests and diseases: without timely measures to protect the trees, you not only risk losing the crop, but also completely lose fruit plantations.
Conducting agromeasures against diseases and pests pears, do not forget to remove dried leaves and cut the affected branches.
Diseases of pear cancer and cytosporosis: description and control measures
Bacterial cancer, or bacterial pear bark necrosis
The causative agent is a bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. Since spring, the budding of the buds and bark of the branches, the blackening and drying of young shoots with leaves are observed. The spots on the leaves are black, cracking along the edges of the plates.
Blisters appear on the bark, dents are often formed with a violet-cherry border. Wood rots, a sharp smell appears, and the trees die. Bacteriosis usually begins with a linear necrosis of the cortex and passes into wide longitudinal stripes.
Control measures. Cut off the affected branches, remove dried trees, disinfect 1 cuts with copper sulphate and smear it with oil paint. Effective measures against this pear disease are spraying trees with copper-containing preparations.
Cytosporosis, or infectious drying of the pear bark
The causative agent is a mushroom Cytospora microspora. The bark of the branches dries out without changing its color, and convex fruit bodies of gray color form on the surface. In spring, when blooming buds, cytosporosis affected branches and whole trees dry out. The infection persists in the bark of the branches.
Control measures. Follow all agrotechnical requirements of cultivation of this crop, take measures to protect trees. Remove and burn affected branches. To treat this pear disease, spray the trees in the spring before the leaves of the 1% Bordeaux mixture or its substitutes bloom.
How to process pears from other diseases
Pear monilial burn
The causative agent is a mushroom Monilia cinerea. In the spring, russeting and drying of flowers, ovaries, fruit twigs occur.
Young leaves that do not fall off for a long time also grow brown. A grayish patina of mycelium develops on the affected bark and leaves. The disease is the most dangerous wet, cold spring. The infection persists in the cortex of the affected branches.
Control measures. Remove dried, damaged branches, disinfect 1 cuts with copper sulfate, cover with oil paint.
When treating pears from this disease with a strong spread of a monilial burn, spend three times spraying the trees with 1% Bordeaux mixture or its substitutes according to the scheme: the first is in the bud separation phase, the second is immediately after flowering and the third is through 10-14 days after the second.
Pear fruit rot
The causative agent is a mushroom Monilia fructigena. The disease appears in places of damage to the pear moth and is rapidly spreading spores to neighboring fruits.
The peel of the fruit grows brown; grayish pads of fungus sporulation are formed on its surface with concentric circles. Spores are spread by wind, insects, streams of water. Infection persists in dried fruit that overwinter on tree branches.
Control measures. Before treating the pears from this disease, collect and remove the affected carrion and fruits from the branches. Spray 1 trees with Bordeaux blend or its substitutes on the same dates as you did against a monilial burn (before and immediately after flowering).
With the massive development of this disease pears will have to resort to methods of treatment in the summer, given the timing of the waiting drugs.
Pear stone fruit
The causative agent is the apple tree venom virus (Pear stony pit). Cracks form on the bark of the branches, chlorosis and yellowing of the veins are observed in the leaves, the fruits become shallow and take on an ugly shape. At the same time, accumulations of hard cells are formed in the pulp of the fruit, the fruits become tasteless. The infection persists in the affected wood.
Control measures. Strongly stoned trees remove them from the site in time and burn them.
In these photos you can see the symptoms of diseases of pears, the description of which is presented on this page:
How to treat pears from pests: photos and control measures
Pear Flower (Vanessa polychloros) - large butterfly. The wings are brick-red, with numerous dark spots, brown on the underside, have a characteristic white point. Caterpillars are bluish-black, with longitudinal stripes and yellow spikes throughout the body, completely devouring the leaves.
Control measures. Spray the trees with Carbofos, Fufanon, Kemifos at the mass appearance of caterpillars. To combat these pests, cut and destroy nests with younger caterpillars.
Pear Tubcovert large (Rhynchites giganteus) - large (mm 7-11) copper-red, brilliant weevil beetle, with wrinkled stripes on the elytra and covered with light hairs.
Beetles and larvae winter in the soil, come to the surface before flowering and feed on buds, flowers, leaves, young shoots, and later on fruits. In June and July, females lay one egg per fetus and gnaw off the stem. Yellowish larva feeds on seeds.
Control measures. Shake and destroy the beetles, collect the cadaver. For processing pears from these pest trees immediately after flowering with one of the following preparations: decis, karbofos, fufanon, Inta-Vir.
Pear moth (Carpocapsa pyrivora) - dark gray butterfly. After flowering trees, butterflies fly during the month in the evening. Females lay their eggs on the fruit, the caterpillars bite into the fruit and feed on the seeds.
The development of the caterpillar continues up to 30 days, and only one fruit is enough to feed it. After feeding, the caterpillars go to the soil and winter in cocoons. Fruit rot develops on damaged fruits.
Control measures. Before treating the pears from these pests, collect and remove the carrion. Spray the trees through 3-4 weeks after the end of flowering with one of the following preparations: decis, karbofos, fufanon, Inta-Vir.
Fruit ermine moth
Fruit ermine moth (Yponomeuta padellus) - small white butterfly.
As shown in the photo, the caterpillars of these pests are dark-gray or yellow-white pears, with two longitudinal rows of black dots along the back:
In early spring, the caterpillars bite into the kidneys, gnaw and skeleton the leaves when the leaves grow, make web nests and live in large colonies. After eating, they pupate one by one in transparent cocoons on the branches.
In June, butterflies come out, feed on nectar, females lay eggs in groups in the form of scutes on the branches. Hatching caterpillars gnaw under the shield of the bark and fall into diapause until the spring of next year.
Control measures. To protect the pears from these pests, spray the trees when budding with one of the following preparations: decis, karbofos, fufanon, Inta-Vir. Collect and destroy spider nests with older caterpillars.
Pear Gall Mite
Pear Gall Mite (Eriophyes pyri) - A very small sucking pest with two pairs of legs. Mites feed on leaf tissues, forming brownish-green or reddish swellings - galls. The leaves gradually turn brown and dry.
The galls are numerous, rounded, often located on pear leaves along the leaf of a pear, damaged by the ribs. Adult mites hibernate with gall mites under the buds of buds, feed on sap of buds in spring, and later pass to leaves.
During the season several generations of the pest develop. With a large number of mites, damaged buds dry up, the growth of shoots ceases, leaves with galls fall prematurely.
Control measures. Spray the trees when budding karbofos, fufanonom or colloidal sulfur. Repeat the treatment after flowering trees and, if necessary, in the summer with the same preparations.
How pest control of pears is carried out is shown in these photos: